January 2010 Issue • Volume 38 • Issue 1

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Obituaries

Deaths

Leonard Broom, Research Associate in Sociology at the University of California-Santa Barbara and Emeritus Professor of Sociology, the Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, passed away on November 19, 2009.

Burton R. Clark, Allan M. Cartter Professor Emeritus of Higher Education, passed away on October 28, 2009.

Claude Levi-Strauss, considered the father of modern anthropology, died October 30 at the age of 100.

Valerie Oppenheimer, University of California-Los Angeles, died November 2 of a stroke and heart attack at her home in the Holmby Hills area of Los Angeles. She was 77.

Neil Meredith Palmer, University of Toledo, passed away February 22, 2009, at the age of 83.

Charles L. Robbins, University of Florida, passed away on May 27, 2009.

Joseph Bernard Tamney, Ball State University, died of complications due to pancreatic cancer at the age of 76 on October 25, 2009.

Obituaries

Leonard Broom
1911-2009

Leonard Broom, 98, died on November 19 in Santa Barbara, CA. Born on November 8, 1911, in Boston, MA, Broom was a distinguished professor of sociology in a career spanning nearly 70 years in several departments of sociology on two continents.

Broom received his BS (Phi Beta Kappa, 1933) and AM (1934) from Boston University. He obtained his PhD in sociology from Duke University in 1937. Full-time positions in academia were rare for new PhDs during the Depression years. Broom had temporary appointments at Clemson University (1937-38) and Kent State University (1938-41) before he obtained a tenure-track appointment at University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1941. He was the second sociologist appointed to UCLA’s newly established department of sociology and anthropology. He remained at UCLA until 1959, during the department’s development years, and was department chair from 1952-57. While at UCLA, he was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship in 1950 for research study in Jamaica, a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1958 for a research study in Australia, and was editor of the American Sociological Review from 1955 -1957. From 1959-71, he was the Ashbel Smith Professor of Sociology at The University of Texas-Austin and chair of that department from 1959-66. While at Texas, he was awarded a visiting fellowship to the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford (1962-1963). From 1971-1976, he was professor of sociology in the Institute of Advanced Studies at The Australian National University, Emeritus Professor from 1977, and Honorary Fellow from 1977-1979. He was affiliated with the department of sociology at University of California-Santa Barbara (UCSB) where he was a research associate from 1977 onward. He moved to Santa Barbara in 1980 and was academically active throughout his retirement years at UCSB, with visiting appointments at Churchill College of the University of Cambridge (1975 and 1977), the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium (1983), and at Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet, Munchen, Germany (1991). He was elected a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia, the Royal Anthropological Institute, and was awarded a DSc (hon) by Boston University.

Beginning with his PhD dissertation on The Acculturation of the Eastern Cherokee, Broom had a lifelong research interest in social differentiation and stratification and in the impact of government policies on minority peoples, always with a view of bringing empirical evidence into any assessment of outcomes. His early academic research at UCLA, which focused on the effects of U.S. internment of Japanese-Americans during WWII, was published in many articles and culminated with two books: Removal and Return: The Socio-economic Effects of the War on Japanese Americans (1949, with Ruth Riemer) and The Managed Casualty: The Japanese-American Family in World War II (1951, with John I. Kitsuse). His research, and the impact of the internment policy on the lives of his Japanese-American students, made him an early critic of that policy and brought the unwelcome attention of the State of California’s Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in 1945. It also earned him an invitation to participate in the development of the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948. The Transformation of the Negro American (1967, with Norval Glenn) focused on continuing discrimination and the fitful socioeconomic changes experience by Black Americans in the Civil Rights Era. A Blanket a Year (1973, with Frank L. Jones) considered the effects of government policy on Australian Aborigines, the metaphor in the title referring to an Aboriginal commentary on all they got for their land. Much of Broom’s later work focused on social mobility and the inheritance of inequality (and of wealth) among diverse populations in both the United States and Australia. Throughout his career, Broom tried to shape critical debate on such issues with empirical evidence rather than preferred interpretations and the easy polemics in vogue at the time.

One of Broom’s most lasting contributions may be his effect on the discipline of sociology. He was instrumental in shaping the development of a strong department while chair at UCLA and later while chair at the University of Texas. At Texas, he founded the Population Research Center, which remains one of the strengths of that department. In Australia in the mid-1960s, he was a critical adviser and influential voice in the creation of a department of sociology at the Australian National University and in the foundation of the Sociological Association of Australia and New Zealand, as well as the Association’s journal, which continues to be the major conduit for peer-review academic work in Australia. Broom also co-authored one of the first sociology textbooks (in 1955 with Philip Selznick), which remained the predominant introductory text of the time. In the various editions published over 40 years, it introduced two generations of students to sociology in the United States and overseas, and was translated into a number of foreign languages (including German, Japanese, Dutch, Hebrew and Russian). Moreover, Broom and his wife, Gretchan, his steady editorial companion throughout his career, have quietly made generous gifts to educational institutions, including The Australian National University, Carleton College, Duke University, and the University of California at Santa Barbara.

Leonard Boom is survived by his wife of 69 years, Gretchan Cooke Broom, son Karl Broom of Great Falls, VA, daughter Dorothy Broom of Canberra, Australia, five grandchildren, and seven great grandchildren.

Robert G. Cushing, University of Texas-Austin, Karl Broom, and Dorothy Broom, Australian National University

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A. Paul Hare
1923-2009

A. Paul Hare, global sociologist, passionately engaged in the world around him, died at the age of 86.

Paul Hare was Professor Emeritus in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Ben-Gurion University, Israel, and an affiliate of the University’s Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, when he died on October 31, 2009, in Beer Sheva, Israel, from complications of a rare form of leukemia.

Hare’s early fame in sociology came from his dedication to small-group research. At Harvard’s Department of Social Relations, Hare edited the 1955 classic collection titled Small Groups: Studies in Social Interaction (with Robert F. Bales and Edgar F. Borgatta). For over 50 years, Hare tracked the evolution of the discipline, publishing with others, updated editions of a small groups "handbook" every decade, most recently, Small Group Research: Basic Issues (2009). Dubbed the "historian of social psychology" by Bales, Hare taught and published extensively about Interaction Process Analysis, SYMLOG (System for the Multiple Level Observation of Groups), and field theory of social interaction systems, as well as Moreno’s Sociometry.

Another focus of Hare’s scholarly contributions was functional analysis of social interaction, derived from the work of Parsons. Hare blended the functional perspective with other theoretical approaches, such as dramaturgical analysis and the creativity hierarchy, as a method for examining social change, including the U.S. civil rights struggle, global peace movements, India’s Shanti Sena, the fight against apartheid in South Africa, and the Hebrew Israelite Community.

Hare’s greatest professional legacy is his life as a model of the sociologist engaged in the currents of social history, across nations and diverse peoples, propelled by his Quaker values to "bear witness" and be a participant observer of social action for peace and justice. Unflagging spirit, keen commitment to egalitarian principles, and a gentle demeanor enabled him to bring out the best in others.

Born Alexander Paul Hare, Jr., June 29, 1923, in Washington, DC, he was known as Paul to friends and family, but published under the name A. Paul Hare. Army service in the European theatre during World War II (1943-46) interrupted his studies at Swarthmore College (BA 1947). Following graduate study at the University of Pennsylvania (MA 1949) and the University of Chicago (PhD 1951), he held short-term teaching and research positions at Princeton University, Wellesley College, Yale University, and Harvard University.

In 1960, Hare joined the faculty of Haverford College, PA (1960-73). Shortly thereafter, the Kennedy Administration appointed him to serve as Deputy Representative of the newly formed U.S. Peace Corps, Philippines. Also in the 1960s, the challenge of third-world transformation drew him to accept a series of short-term teaching positions for fostering leadership in African nations: Makerere University, University of Ibadan, University of Rhodesia, and University of Cape Town. At Haverford, Hare founded the Center for Nonviolent Conflict Resolution. Two books edited with Blumberg’Nonviolent Direct Action (1968) and Liberation without Violence (1977)’reflected Hare’s passions during this period.

He left the United States for South Africa in 1973 to be head of the Department of Sociology, University of Cape Town, where he met his current wife, June Rabson Hare. In 1980, they immigrated to Israel where Hare joined the faculty of Ben-Gurion University. Small groups and social interaction continued to be the core themes of his teaching, research, and publication. However, as a byproduct of his ardor for mentoring junior colleagues, he additionally edited a series of collaborative books portraying the desert experience: Desert Regions (1999), Foreign Experts and Unsustainable Development (2000), Israel as Center Stage (2002), The Desert Experience in Israel (2009), and Transfer of Technology (2009).

Hare was a lifelong member of the American Sociological Association, active in the Social Psychology Section, also a member of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, and served as President of the Pennsylvania Sociological Society (1966-67). He was editor of Sociological Inquiry and the founder and first editor of Israel Social Science Research, and served on the editorial board of numerous professional journals.

Colleagues, friends, and family remember Paul Hare not only for his selflessness, but for his humor and expression: wit, punning, tendency to burst into song with a vast repertoire of lyrics suitable to most any occasion, and his raised eyebrow. His brief memoir is aptly titled Funny Things (2009).

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Valerie Oppenheimer
1923-2009

Valerie Oppenheimer, a University of California-Los Angeles sociologist known for pioneering research on the effects of employment trends on marriage and the American family, died November 2 of a stroke and heart attack at her home in Los Angeles. She was 77.

The author of more than 25 studies on gender, employment, marriage and the family, Oppenheimer taught for 25 years at UCLA, rising from a lecturer to a full professor. Even after retiring in 1994, she remained active in her field, publishing an influential study in 2003 about the role economic instability plays in men’s tendency to delay marriage to increasingly older ages.

Oppenheimer was the recipient of two of her field’s most prominent prizes. In 1979, the ASA honored her with the Jessie Bernard Award and this year, she became the inaugural recipient of the Harriet B. Presser Award from the Population Association of America, a biennial award honoring a record of sustained contribution in gender and demography.

"Valerie was the first demographer to document and explain the great increase in married women working outside the home, which has been one of the most important demographic trends of the last half-century," said Andrew Cherlin, a former student and the Benjamin H. Griswold III Professor of Public Policy at Johns Hopkins University.

Having conducted postdoctoral research at the London School of Economics after earning a PhD in sociology from the University of California-Berkeley, Oppenheimer first gained attention for her research on women surging into the workplace in the 1960s.

In a pathbreaking 1967 article, Oppenheimer analyzed the interaction of labor supply and demand to explain the rapidly increasing employment rates of women in the post-World War II years, wrote University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill sociologist Philip Cohen in the blog "Family Inequality."

In a 1968 article, Oppenheimer provided documentation for high levels of gender segregation in the workplace at the time, finding that 67 percent of clerical workers were women and that women made up 88 percent of the workforce in the communications industry.

"Her dispassionate and methodical, scientific tone in these articles masks the cutting-edgeness of a woman independently doing theoretically ambitious, quantitative, demographic work in the United States at that time," wrote Cohen.

Oppenheimer’s 1970 book The Female Labor Force in the United States was the first extended treatment of the rise of married women in the U.S. workforce, said Cherlin.

Oppenheimer also is credited with debunking the "specialization and trading model," a theory that held that marriages are most stable and that couples best maximize their fortunes when they combine wives’ unpaid work with husbands’ paid employment.

"She did not predict or advocate for the end of marriage, but rather for its reconfiguration as a two-earner partnership, albeit one that would probably be less common and less stable than the trading-based marriages were before," Cohen wrote.

Oppenheimer’s most famous piece was published in 1988 and dealt with an emerging demographic trend: Couples who postponed marriage, said Megan Sweeney, a UCLA associate professor of sociology who specializes in family research. At a time when prevailing wisdom held that women were putting off marriage because new opportunities in the workplace made the institution less attractive to them, Oppenheimer argued that the situation was more complex. By applying job-search theory from economics to the process of looking for a spouse, she introduced important new ideas about marriage timing.

"Part of the process of evaluating potential mates is figuring out how compatible partners will be in the future, which Oppenheimer argued was at least in part related to the kind of work people do," Sweeney said. "If a woman anticipates staying at home throughout much of her marriage, the nature of her future work is fairly straightforward to anticipate, although the nature of men’s future work in the labor market may be less certain.

"Oppenheimer was interested in how this process of finding a spouse changed as women increasingly expected to remain employed throughout their adult lives and as young men’s future position in the labor force became less predictable," she said. "She argued that uncertainty about the future characteristics of potential mates complicates the process of finding an appropriate spouse and leads to a delay in marriage."

Oppenheimer’s studies have been cited in more than 1,000 other publications, Sweeney said. Nearly a quarter of those citations have occurred in the past five years, meaning that fellow sociologists are finding the work increasingly relevant as time goes on.

"We look at marriage completely differently, thanks to Valerie Oppenheimer," Sweeney said.

Valerie Constance Kincade was born October 25, 1932, in London and raised in New York City.

Oppenheimer’s husband, the pulmonologist Edward Anthony Oppenheimer, died in 2005.

"They were married for 40 years," said Chris. "I never heard them yell at each other. If they disagreed, they’d exchange three or four words about it and then go into separate rooms. Then five minutes later, they’d come back together and everything was fine."

In addition to her son Chris, 39, and his wife, Jackie, Oppenheimer is survived by four grandchildren, Brandon, 20, Marley, 15, Tiara, 9, and Teagan, 6, as well as a great-grandchild, Carlitos, 6.

Meg Sullivan, University of California-Los Angeles

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Samuel Franklin Sampson
1934-2009

Samuel Franklin Sampson ("Frank"), Professor of Sociology, Emeritus, at the University of Vermont died in Burlington, VT, on October 7, 2009, after a lingering illness. He was born in 1934 in Malden, MA, the son of Margaret Louise (Grimes) Sampson and Samuel D. Sampson, formerly of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Frank held a warm spot in his heart for his Cape Breton connection, visiting with his wife, Pat, whenever possible.

Frank entered Boston University in 1952, on both a BU and a Trevelli National Scholarship. He left after a year, deeply upset over the death of a highly esteemed professor related to the McCarthyism "witch hunt" of the early 1950s. Frank then had a brief stint in New York City writing plays and short stories and working as a newspaper reporter. In 1954, he began a four-year hitch in the Air Force at bases in Oklahoma and Texas, serving as an academic navigation and flight instructor. Later, as a Captain in the Air Force Reserve, he worked in research and development in Headquarters, Office of Aerospace Research.

While in the Air Force, Frank earned BA and MA degrees (sociology) from the University of Oklahoma and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. After leaving the Air Force, he entered graduate school at Cornell University and was granted a PhD in sociology in 1968. His seminal dissertation research on relationships within a monastery became well-known and provided an important empirical basis for the development of block modeling as a tool for examining social networks. During his educational career he received several fellowships and awards, including a Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship and National Science Foundation Fellowships. In addition to teaching assistantships at Cornell, he taught for a year at what is now Binghamton University.

After Binghamton, Frank joined the Department of Social Relations and Sociology at Harvard as Lecturer and Chairman of the Board of Tutors and Advisors. He also served as Visiting Associate Professor of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT plus a stint as Director of the Harvard Suburban Political Processes study. While at Harvard, he ran unsuccessfully for State Representative in the 16th Middlesex District. This disappointment was to repeat itself later in Burlington, VT, when he lost a race for alderman.

Frank left Harvard in 1972 to take a position as Professor and Chair in the Department. of Sociology at the University of Vermont.

Frank was a strong and passionate proponent of the application of sociological theories and perspectives to the solution of societal problems. It was a major focus of his career, exemplified by his 12 years on the Burlington Planning Commission. There he served on various subcommittees before becoming chair. His strong leadership was a major factor in significant changes to the city’s waterfront. During his tenure, the commission dealt with issues of health care, urban design, a city master plan, public housing, and inclusionary zoning. As a Commissioner, Frank always spoke strongly on behalf of the disadvantaged and the implication of any proposed changes for their welfare.

At the university, Frank was a major force as a member and later chair of the newly established Faculty Grievance Committee. He was always watchful for any violations of equality, due process and fairness, a concern which led him to resign as Chair of the Sociology Department to protest when the University Administration overruled faculty recommendations for reappointment of a highly qualified professor (MD and PhD), probably because of his critical views of the medical profession. Some years later Frank again took the Chair at the request of his colleagues.

As a teacher Frank was very demanding, but fair and readily available to help his students. He was kind but firm, enjoyed his students, and nurtured several of them into PhD programs at major universities. His course syllabi were unusually long but carefully constructed. The same can be said for his exams. They required careful construction and answers of many pages’usually longer than any secretary/typist had ever seen.

While Frank’s major career focus was teaching and applied sociology he made many and varied contributions to the discipline. These included book reviews, invited essays, papers at society meetings, discussant on panel presentations, referee of journal submissions, and NSF advisory panels. He also served as a consultant to organizations in the public sphere.

When asked to describe Frank briefly colleagues and others would include such words as "erudite," "disciplined," "thorough," "fair-minded," and "principled." He was also a kind and generous man, a man of high integrity. He was loyal to his many friends and had a big and joyful heart for those he worked with.

Frank is survived by his wife, Pat’a wonderful kindred spirit and helpmeet and by two step-daughters, some cousins (some in Cape Breton), and many nieces and nephews.

His was a life well-lived.

Gordon F. Lewis, University of Vermont

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Joe Tamney
1933-2009

Joe Tamney passed away on October 25, 2009, in Reston, Virginia, due to complications from cancer.

Joe was born in Queens, New York City, on January 8, 1933. He received a BA (Cum Laude) in 1954 from Fordham University. After graduation, he served two years as a lieutenant in the U.S. Army based in Germany. He then returned to Fordham and completed an MA in 1957, and from there he went on to Cornell University where he received his PhD in sociology in 1962. After Cornell, Joe was on the sociology faculty at Notre Dame, Marquette University (where he was also Chair of the department), and the University of Singapore from 1962 to 1971. He joined the Sociology Department at Ball State University in 1971 and became full professor in 1975. He was Chair of that department from 1977 to 1983 and retired from Ball State University as a Professor Emeritus of Sociology in 2002.

Joe was a vibrant and active member of the academic community. He published 77 articles in scientific research journals and nine books on topics including religion, politics, and community. He served as editor of Sociology of Religion (1994-2000), President of the Association for the Sociology of Religion (2003-04), member of the North Central Sociological Association Executive Council (1985-88), and editor of the Sociology of Religion Section newsletter for the American Sociological Association (2002-2009).

On the personal side, Joe had an easygoing personality with a great sense of humor. He was passionate about social justice for the less fortunate such as the poor and the homeless. He was a loving and supportive father of five children, including an adopted African-American daughter. There are also eight grandchildren. Joe would watch college and professional football games with his three sons. He was interested in modern art, liked listening to jazz, loved wine and trying new foods and was always reading a good book, and did so up to the end of his life.

Donations in memory of Joseph Tamney can be made to the Dr. Joseph Tamney Scholarship, which provides financial assistance to students showing great promise in research. Make checks payable to Ball State University Foundation and indicate the Dr. Joseph Tamney Scholarship (#8055) in the memo. Please mail donations to Ball State University Foundation, Alumni Center, Room 230, 2800 West Bethel Avenue, Muncie, IN 47304.

Steve Johnson and Rachel Kraus

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