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  1. Approaches to the Study of Social Structure

    Jonathan H. Turner reviews Peter M. Blau's _Approaches to the Study of Social Structure_ (1975).
  2. Masters of the Mint

    John Stuart Mill once wrote, “there cannot, in short, be intrinsically a more insignificant thing, in the economy of society, than money” (1848:48). _Money Talks: Explaining How Money Really Works_ proves that Mill was not always correct in his assessments. In this engaging set of essays, an interdisciplinary group of authors illustrates just how varied money can be and how the different forms it takes are—contra Mill—of tremendous significance for social organization, governance, economic performance, and the formation and maintenance of social relationships.
  3. The Gender Gap in Business Leadership: Exploring an Affect Control Theory Explanation

    We use affect control theory (ACT) and its computer simulation program, Interact, to theoretically model the interactional dynamics that women and men business executives are likely to face in the workplace, and we show how these dynamics may contribute to the gender gap in business leadership. Using data from 520 simulated events and two analysis strategies, we use ACT to develop empirically grounded hypotheses regarding these processes.
  4. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Consumers’ Economic Expectations

    Consumers’ expectations about the future of their own finances and the macroeconomy are used to forecast consumption, but forecasts do not typically account for differences by race and ethnicity. In this report, the author asks (1) whether there is consistent racial and ethnic variation in consumers’ economic expectations, (2) if differences can be explained by economic experiences, and (3) how the scope of expectations matters.
  5. The Long Road to Economic Independence of German Women, 1973 to 2011

    Over the past few decades, women’s educational attainment and subsequent labor market participation have increased substantially in Germany. In comparison with these well-studied trends, little is known about changes in women’s contributions to couples’ joint income that may be associated with them. To address this question, the author provides a visualization of changes in the distribution of women’s income contributions in Germany from 1973 to 2011.
  6. Urban Hospitals as Anchor Institutions: Frameworks for Medical Sociology

    Recent policy developments are forcing many hospitals to supplement their traditional focus on the provision of direct patient care by using mechanisms to address the social determinants of health in local communities. Sociologists have studied hospital organizations for decades, to great effect, highlighting key processes of professional socialization and external influences that shape hospital-based care. New methods are needed, however, to capture more recent changes in hospital population health initiatives in their surrounding neighborhoods.
  7. Adult Education, Stratification, and Regime Change: Upgrading and Sidestepping in Russia, 1965–2005

    Adult education influences how labor market opportunities are structured in the later life course. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the stratifying role of adult education resting on the distinction between two forms of adult education—upgrading and sidestepping: Resources, incentives, and selection processes systematically structure rates of participation. Using educational history data from Russia, we test hypotheses derived from our framework and examine the impact of the Soviet collapse and the ensuing economic recovery.
  8. Mixed Land Use: Implications for Violence and Property Crime

    This study investigates the effect of mixed land use on violence and property crime in neighborhood block groups while simultaneously considering the presence of criminogenic facilities and sociodemographic conditions. We conduct negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between mixed land use and crime and investigate whether the relationship is moderated by sociodemographic characteristics or the presence of criminogenic facilities. The results suggest that mixed land use may reduce property crime while violent crime is influenced by mixed land use in nearby neighborhoods.

  9. Priming the Pump: Public Investment, Private Mortgage Investment, and Violent Crime

    Recent neighborhood crime research suggests that increased mortgage investment in local communities can help reduce street crime by defending against physical decline and improving perceptions of the neighborhood, which make informal social control more likely. Unfortunately, the neighborhoods that could benefit the most from this relationship are the least likely to get private mortgage investment, as mortgages tend to flow towards neighborhoods that are already stable.

  10. Broken Windows as Growth Machines: Who Benefits from Urban Disorder and Crime?

    Using interview data from two groups in the Woodlawn neighborhood on Chicago's South Side—mothers of young children and neighborhood merchants—this paper suggests a way of connecting two dominant ways of conceiving of physical disorder in urban spaces, one of which focuses on physical disorder as a root of social disorder and another that focuses on physical disorder as an economic prerequisite for gentrification. Specifically, elites can deploy signs of disorder in moral and reputational terms in the urban political arena to gain economic advantages for themselves.