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  1. Increasing American Political Tolerance: A Framework Excluding Hate Speech

    According to prior research, political tolerance has either stagnated since the 1970s (if to be tolerant one must be tolerant of every group in all circumstances) or steadily increased (if tolerance is measured using an index, averaging across groups). Using General Social Survey cross-sectional and panel data on civil liberties, this article proposes a new framework: separating out the groups that use hate speech from those that may be only controversial. The United States is unique among Western liberal democracies in not having a prohibition against hate speech.

  2. Evidence of the Effect of Police Violence on Citizen Crime Reporting

    By carefully examining our original data and models, Zoorob identified a potential outlier that should be scrutinized when evaluating our findings. We thank him for raising this important point and for engaging in collaborative, problem-solving research.
  3. Do Police Brutality Stories Reduce 911 Calls? Reassessing an Important Criminological Finding

    This comment reassesses the prominent claim from Desmond, Papachristos, and Kirk (2016) (DPK) that 911 calls plummeted—and homicides surged—because of a police brutality story in Milwaukee (the Jude story). The results in DPK depend on a substantial outlier 47 weeks after the Jude story, the final week of data. Identical analyses without the outlier final week show that the Jude story had no statistically significant effect on either total 911 calls or violent crime 911 calls.
  4. Mano Suave–Mano Dura: Legitimacy Policing and Latino Stop-and-Frisk

    Stop-and-frisk and other punitive policing practices disproportionately affect marginalized communities of color. In response to calls for reform, police departments have implemented community policing programs aimed at improving relations with racialized communities. This study examines how a police unit used courtesy and respect in its engagement with a criminalized population, gang-associated Latinos, while relying on the stop-and-frisk practice.
  5. When Does Punishment End and Justice Begin?

    In Homeward: Life in the Year after Prison, Bruce Western critically and thoughtfully engages the empirical alongside the ethical in this qualitative study of reentry in the United States. This book is a major methodological departure from Western’s previous work focused on statistical analysis of large-scale data sets, something he acknowledges early...
  6. Confronting Race in American Criminal Justice Reform

    The contemporary American criminal justice system is neither rational nor just. Nor is it color-blind. Despite decades of declines in crime and much talk of policy reform, the criminal justice system remains an established feature of racial inequality in the United States.
  7. Linked Lives in Double Jeopardy: Child Incarceration and Maternal Health at Midlife

    Parents’ relationships with their adult children play an important role in shaping mid and later life health. While these relationships are often sources of support, stressors in the lives of children can compromise parents’ health as they age. I consider that a child’s incarceration is also a stressor that could imperil parents’ health through social, emotional, and economic strains that parents may experience as a result.
  8. Linked Lives in Double Jeopardy: Child Incarceration and Maternal Health at Midlife

    How does a child’s incarceration influence their mother’s health at midlife? Prior research shows that adverse circumstances in the lives of children can harm parental health, yet we know little about how a child’s incarceration shapes parental well-being.
  9. Complaining While Black: Racial Disparities in the Adjudication of Complaints Against the Police

    Reports of citizen complaints of police misconduct often note that officers are rarely disciplined for alleged misconduct. The perception of little officer accountability contributes to widespread distrust of law enforcement in communities of color. This project investigates how race and segregation shape the outcomes of allegations made against the Chicago Police Department (CPD) between 2011 and 2014. We find that complaints by black and Latino citizens and against white officers are less likely to be sustained.

  10. The Network Structure of Police Misconduct

    Conventional explanations of police misconduct generally adopt a microlevel focus on deviant officers or a macrolevel focus on the top-down organization of police departments. Between these levels are social networks of misconduct. This study recreates these networks using data on 16,503 complaints and 15,811 police officers over a six-year period in Chicago. We examine individual-level factors associated with receiving a complaint, the basic properties of these misconduct networks, and factors related to officer co-naming in complaints.