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Schools and neighborhoods are thought to be two of the most important contextual influences on student academic outcomes. Drawing on a unique data set that permits simultaneous estimation of neighborhood and school contributions to student test score gains, we analyze the distributions of these contributions to consider the relative importance of schools and neighborhoods in shaping student achievement outcomes.
This study considers whether elevated distress among youth living in more disordered neighborhoods can be explained by personal exposure to violence and victimization, level of non-victimization adversity, and family support. Analyses were based on a sample of 2,039 youth ages 10 to 17 who participated in the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, a national telephone survey conducted in 2008.
The concept of spatial justice connects social justice to space (Harvey 1973; Lefebvre 1992 and Soja 2010). As Soja (2010) argues, justice has a geography. Spatial justice seeks more equitable distribution of resources in a world where societies are inherently unjust. In theory, many urban design and place-making projects aim to create a more spatially—just city. That is, until such projects collide against the profit logic and ambitions of the private market.