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Charles Perrow described the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear reactor meltdown as a Normal Accident. Normal accidents are a class of events produced when subsystems in risky, complex and tightly coupled systems fail. Tight linkages between subsystems propagate failure, and local breakdowns cascade into systemic collapse. Diane Vaughn applied the normal accident metaphor to the 1986 Challenger Disaster.
Educators of all sorts have been suddenly thrust into online teaching amidst the global pandemic. But who might be left behind as we adapt online? Digital inequality research points to three questions that help us understand the current landscape for K-12 students: How robust is the global technological infrastructure? How ready are educators and students? And how might students be unequally rewarded as classes go online?