American Sociological Association

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  1. Soldiers to Scientists: Military Service, Gender, and STEM Degree Earning

    The authors use 2014–2018 data from the American Community Survey to answer two questions: To what extent is military service associated with higher rates of earning a bachelor’s degree in a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field (vs. a non-STEM field)? To what extent is this relationship gendered? The findings suggest that military service is associated with higher odds of completing a STEM degree and that this association is particularly strong for female veterans.

  2. Getting Eyes in the Home: Child Protective Services Investigations and State Surveillance of Family Life

    Each year, U.S. child protection authorities investigate millions of families, disproportionately poor families and families of color. These investigations involve multiple home visits to collect information across numerous personal domains. How does the state gain such widespread entrée into the intimate, domestic lives of marginalized families? Predominant theories of surveillance offer little insight into this process and its implications.
  3. Standardizing Biases: Selection Devices and the Quantification of Race

    Racial inequality persists despite major advances in formal, legal equality. Scholars and policymakers argue that individual biases (both explicit and implicit) combine with subjective organizational decision-making practices to perpetuate racial inequality. The standardization of decision making offers a potential solution, promising to eliminate the subjectivity that biases consequential decisions. We ask, under what conditions may standardization reduce racial inequality?

  4. Biracial Identity Development at Historically White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    This study explores the relationship between biracial identity development and college context. I draw on interviews with 49 black-white biracial first- and second-year students attending historically black colleges/universities (HBCUs) or historically white colleges/universities (HWCUs) and follow-up interviews with the same students at the end of college to explore how and why their racial identities changed over time.
  5. What Is Title IX? Toward a Campus-Based Pedagogy to Study Inequality

    In this article, we propose a campus-based pedagogy to teach sociology. We offer the example of a project designed to critically assess university Title IX policy and situate it within existing sociological research on gender-based inequalities and violence. Students engage in sociological research regarding issues such as sexual harassment and assault, intimate partner violence, consent, and rape culture, among others, and develop a tool to create greater awareness among the student body of university policy in these areas.

  6. The Right Fit? Classroom Mismatch in Middle School and Its Inconsistent Effect on Student Learning

    Research on college admissions shows that all students tend to benefit from overmatching, but high-status students are most likely to be overmatched, and low-status students are most likely to be undermatched. This study examines whether mismatching takes place when students are sorted into classrooms in middle school. Given prior research on effectively maintained inequality, we theorize that classroom sorting acts as an opportunity for privileged parents to obtain a qualitative advantage for their children.

  7. Learning Inequality in Francophone Africa: School Quality and the Educational Achievement of Rich and Poor Children

    Influential reports about the “learning crisis” in the global South generally pay insufficient attention to social inequalities in learning. In this study, we explore the association between family socioeconomic status and learning outcomes in 10 francophone African countries using data from the Programme for the Analysis of Education Systems, a standardized assessment of pupils’ mathematics and reading competence at the end of primary school. We start by showing that learning outcomes among grade 6 pupils are both poor and highly stratified.

  8. First-Birth Timing and the Motherhood Wage Gap in 140 Occupations

    Is delayed fertility associated with a reduced motherhood wage gap in all occupations? Using multilevel models and data from the 2011–2015 American Community Survey, O*NET, and the Current Population Survey, I examine whether delayed fertility is associated with a reduced motherhood wage gap in 140 occupations. Delayed childbearing is one strategy women use to mitigate the motherhood wage penalty. Findings indicate that mothers in high-earning professional occupations experienced the largest wage penalties with early motherhood but also the largest premiums with delayed childbearing.

  9. A Multilevel Investigation into Contextual Reliability in the Designation of Cognitive 180 Health Conditions among U.S. Children

    Unreliable diagnoses (e.g., based on inconsistent criteria, subjective) may be inaccurate and even inequitable. This study uses an event history approach with yearly child- and school-level data from 378,919 children in a large urban school district in the southwestern United States between 2006–2007 and 2011–2012 to investigate contextual reliability in the designation of cognitive health conditions (e.g., autism, learning disabilities).

  10. LGBTQ+ Latino/a Young People’s Interpretations of Stigma and Mental Health: 163 An Intersectional Minority Stress Perspective

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ+) young people of color encounter interlocking systems of social prejudice and discrimination. However, little is understood about how subjective meanings of perceived structural stigma associated with multiple marginalized social statuses influence mental health. We document how perceived stigma can shape mental health inequalities among multiply marginalized individuals if they also encounter stigmatizing societal frameworks.