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American Sociological Association: Bylaws Article 2
ARTICLE II. Elections And Voting
Section 1. The President-Elect, Vice President-Elect, Secretary-Elect, members of the Council, and Committees who are elected by the membership-at-large (Committee on Nominations and Committee on Publications) shall be elected by the members qualified to vote. The term of office shall begin on the date announced for the close of the Annual Meeting of the Association in the year during which they are elected, except that the term of office for members of the Committee on Nominations shall begin on the date announced for the beginning of the Annual Meeting of the Association in the year during which they are elected.
(a) The Committee on Nominations shall select two names each for the offices of President-Elect, Vice President-Elect, and Secretary-Elect, and for each vacancy on the Council, the Committee on Committees, and the Committee on Publications.
(b) Prior to the time of the meeting of the Committee on Nominations, Members and Student Members shall be invited to suggest names for nominations for all elective offices; the Committee shall be guided but not bound by the suggestions received.
(c) Prior to the submission of the official ballot for the election, the nominees of the Committee on Nominations shall be made known to the membership. Within thirty days of that notice, Members and Student Members may propose additions to the ballot. A Member or Student Member who is supported by 50 Members or Student Members for nomination to Council, the Committee on Nominations, or the Committee on Publications; or by at least 100 Members or Student Members for nomination as President-Elect, Vice President-Elect, or Secretary-Elect will be placed on the official ballot along with the nominees of the Committee on Nominations.
(d) Nominations for the members of the Committee on Nominations shall be made by the twelve at-large members of the Council plus the Vice President-Elect, serving as chair without a vote. The twelve at-large members of Council shall select twice as many names as there are vacancies to be filled.
Section 3. The general election ballots shall be sent to the members eligible to vote no later than May 15 of each year. To be valid as votes ballots must be returned to the Executive Office or its agent by the date specified on the ballot, which shall be no less than thirty days from the date ballots were submitted to members. Procedures for the counting of ballots shall insure the anonymity of individual voters.
Section 4. For the positions of President-Elect, Vice President-Elect, and Secretary-Elect, a majority of those members voting is required before a candidate is declared elected. If none of the candidates receives a majority of those members voting, the election shall be decided in accordance with procedures adopted by Council. For other elected positions, including Council, the Committee on Nominations, and the Committee on Publications, the candidate (or candidates when two or more vacancies are to be filled) receiving the largest number of votes shall be declared elected. In case of a tie vote, the President of the Association, in the presence of witnesses chosen by the candidates concerned, shall decide by lot between them. For all positions other than President, President-Elect, Past President and Past Vice President, if the elected person dies, resigns, or becomes unable to complete the full term for which that person was elected, the candidate who received the next highest number of votes shall be declared elected for the remainder of the term, unless otherwise specified herein.
Section 5. The Executive Officer shall be responsible for the conduct of elections and for the tabulation of ballots. The Executive Officer shall report the results of tabulations to the Secretary and to the appropriate Committees. The Executive Officer may arrange for outside review of election and counting procedures.
Section 6. The Executive Office shall hold the ballots and other materials in safe custody for a period of at least eighteen months.
Section 7. The Council shall have the authority to determine the procedures to be followed in conducting elections and other ballot measures under these Bylaws and the Association's Constitution, provided that such procedures shall protect the privacy of members who vote and ensure an accurate and fair count.
Section 8. Voting members of the Association may take any action otherwise within the powers of the Council. Such an action by voting members requires the completion in sequence of the following steps:
(a) A written statement of the proposed action, hereinafter called the Members' Resolution, is signed by three percent of the voting members of the Association. The introductions of all petitions circulated for the purpose of validating a Members' Resolution shall contain the following statement: "For signatures to be valid, the signee must be a voting member of the American Sociological Association as of December 3l of the year of the signing. The signee's name must be written as it appears on the membership rolls of the Association, and signers must provide their addresses as they appear on the membership rolls of the Association. The date of signing shall be indicated."
(b) The Members' Resolution and the accompanying petition signature are sent to the Executive Office of the Association, postmarked no later than December 31 of the year during which the signatures were affixed. All signatures for a given Members' Resolution must be affixed within a calendar year. Each page of the Members' Resolution and accompanying signatures must include the following statement: "This resolution (or these signatures) is submitted by ____, a voting member of the American Sociological Association."
(c) The Members' Resolution is received by the Secretary who shall verify the validity of the signatures and the requirement that the petition has been signed by three percent of the voting members of the Association. Following this verification, the Secretary shall distribute the Members' Resolution to the Council.
(d) The Members' Resolution is included on the agenda and discussed by the Council at its next scheduled meeting.
(e) If the Council disapproves the Members' Resolution, the Members' Resolution and any resolution of the Council alternative to it are published in an appropriate Association publication or by other means as deemed appropriate by the Council.
(f) A ballot containing the Members' Resolution and any alternative resolution of the Council is sent to the voting members of the Association; such a referendum will accompany the annual election ballot except under unusual circumstances as determined by the Council.
(g) The Council shall consider the urgency of any Members' Resolution brought by the voting members, and shall employ special procedures without regard to the schedule of publications where it deems this justifiable.