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American Sociological Association: Funding for the Advancement of the Discipline (FAD)
Fund for the Advancement of the Discipline: Past Recipients (Organized by Funding Round)
Click on a round to view past awards.
Meghan A. Burke, Illinois Wesleyan University, $8,000, Summit: New Frontiers in the Study of Colorblind Racism. The award will support a conference bringing together scholars, a campus community, and a local community to invigorate new directions for research on contemporary racism. The conference seeks to push the concept of (and the research agenda on) colorblindness in new directions, and should be effective in getting young scholars involved in this research. The “summit” conference is expected to lead to an edited volume of groundbreaking new research, a toolkit for educators teaching about contemporary racism and the creation and dissemination of a public sociology brief about the relevance of this work for nonprofits, policymakers, and activists.
Martha Crowley and Stacy De Coster, North Carolina State University, $7,992, Emotion Management by African American Consumers. This study will instead investigate the emotion work that African American consumers must do to manage the feelings of service workers as they navigate the racist microaggressions that permeate consumer settings. The project will draw on semi-structured interviews to advance our understanding of emotion work and African Americans’ use of agency to navigate microaggressive contexts, while examining variations associated with age, gender, and social class. The review panel noted that research in the field of emotional labor has been dominated by studies of white middle-class women; an intersectional analysis is sorely needed, and this project promises to fill the gap.
Danielle Kane, DePauw University, and Ke Li, Indiana University, $7,910, The Gendered Transition to Adulthood in Urban and Rural China. Kane and Li’s project will investigate gender and geographic differences in the transition to adulthood in China, as well as the role played by the natal family in navigating this transition, through interviews conducted in two locations. The project aims to globalize our understanding of emerging adulthood through an in-depth investigation of a non-Western case while helping to specify the links between socioeconomic change and beliefs about the timing and ordering of markers of adulthood. It will fill a gap in the research literature since most previous work has been done through surveys.
Daniel Schneider, University of California-Berkeley, and Kristen Harknett, University of Pennsylvania, $7,596, Employment Precarity and Family Well-being: Evidence from San Francisco's Predictable Scheduling and Fair Treatment of Retail Employees Ordinance. San Francisco recently passed an ordinance that will require some employers to provide hourly workers with advance notice of work schedules and the opportunity to move from part-time to full-time work. This pilot study will assemble a team of undergraduate and graduate students to interview affected workers with children about the intersection of their work and family lives. It is the first wave of a longitudinal qualitative study to assess how the new ordinance may affect family life and will also lay the groundwork for a quantitative assessment using existing administrative data or original survey data. The research will advance our understanding of how predictable scheduling legislation affects the lives of workers in San Francisco and inform national debates in the wake of the emergence of a broader movement across the country.
Christopher Wetzel, Stonehill College, $8,000, The Dynamics of Gaming Legalization. While gaming has become a relatively acceptable form of recreation throughout the United States, the challenges associated with normalizing various types of wagering have differed across states. This project will use in-depth interviews and archival research to compare three state cases: Massachusetts, a state that allows casinos, lotteries, and pari-mutuel wagering; Nevada, a state that still prohibits lotteries but permits casinos and pari-mutuel wagering; and Hawaii, one of two states that does not allow any gaming. The project includes a connection to pedagogy. The research promises to enhance our sociological understanding of morality and moral politics; the paradoxical impacts of neoliberalism and attempts to increase state revenue through gaming, individualizing economic risk in the process; and the race, class, and gender dynamics of the three state case studies of gaming legalization.
Laura E. Enriquez, University of California- Irvine; Katharine Donato, Vanderbilt University; and Cheryl Llewellyn, State University of New York at Stony Brook, $7,000, Gender and Migration: Building a Sociological Field though Interdisciplinary Conversation. While participating in interdisciplinary working groups that have contributed to the growth of the field over the past decade, these three researchers observed that sociology has yet to fully incorporate gender within migration studies. One recent literature review indicates that most sociologists studying migration opt for a binary approach to gender and few use it as an explanatory variable. The researchers will conduct an updated review of the sociology literature and convene a conference to address methodological and theoretical issues in the study of gender and migration. They will compile the products of these activities in a special journal issue that promises to benefit all sociologists working on migration.
Anne Esacove, Muhlenberg College, $7,000, The Natural Death Movement: Re-Enchanting Death, Revitalizing Life, and Preserving the Planet. Death is a highly ritualized social phenomenon characterized by multi-dimensional institutional structures, making it a rich subject for sociological inquiry. Yet, death in the contemporary United States remains understudied. Esacove’s research concerns the burgeoning natural death movement, which includes efforts to promote open conversations about death, facilitate family care for the dead, and offer options that do not impede natural decomposition. These practices contest the normative and commodified approaches to death care in the United States. They also disrupt the authority of science and medicine by challenging conventional wisdom that established mortuary practices—particularly embalming— protect the public health and support healthy grieving. Esacove’s project will help us answer the question of whether this movement represents a major shift in cultural practices and norms or a fringe phenomenon destined to remain on the margins.
Carla Goar, Kent State University, and Jenny Davis, James Madison University, $7,000, Moral Stigma: Race, Disability, and Body Size. This FAD project will add to the investigators’ ongoing research on the processes underlying stigma, with a focus on its moral aspect. Their project includes participant observation and in-depth interviews with parents at specialized camps for children with stigmatizing attributes: culture camps for adoptive parents with children of a different race, most often white parents with children of color; disability camps for families of children with disabilities; and weight-loss camps for children with high body mass index (BMI). Parents of children with visible physical disabilities and children of color experience morally neutral stigma, while parents of children with non-visible mental or emotional disabilities or high BMI—often attributed to personal failure—experience morally fraught stigma. The study will contribute both to scholarship on stigmatization and socialization, and provide practical insights on how to manage stigma successfully in an institutional setting.
Elizabeth Hordge-Freeman, University of South Florida, $6,950, Second-Class Daughters: Informal Adoption as Neo-Slavery in Brazil. Brazil has the largest number of domestic workers in the world at more than 7 million, most of them Afro-Brazilian women. In 2013, the Brazilian Congress approved sweeping labor reforms which some call the country’s “second abolition of slavery.” However, many Afro-Brazilian women continue to suffer from labor exploitation in a form of neo-slavery that occurs in their “adoptive” families. This project is a sociological investigation into the structural and individual factors that contribute to the abuse and unpaid labor of Afro-Brazilian women in adoptive families in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Using a qualitative methodology, the project will juxtapose interviews and ethnographic observations with “adopted” women to the data collected from their adoptive families. It makes use of the theoretical framing of “affective capital” to clarify the critical role that emotional manipulation plays in this form of contemporary labor exploitation.
Janice M. Irvine, University of Massachusetts, $6,987, Nuts, Sluts, and Perverts: Sociology’s Rocky Romance with Deviance. This project will enrich the discipline by expanding our knowledge of its history. Irvine’s project is a history of the sociology of deviance from 1950–79. It situates the sociology of deviance in its Cold War historical moment, examining the field in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The study examines the connections between the production of knowledge about deviants, their emerging politicization, and new forms of cultural production—particularly television. In this time period, the emerging academic research, social movement mobilizations, and popular culture together brought new cultural visibility to particular deviant types, contributing in some cases to their normalization. Involving interviews with pioneering deviance scholars and scholar-activists, archival research, and content analysis of primary documents and literature, this study will explore the ways gender, race, sexuality, and class have shaped deviance research.
Eran Shor, McGill University, and Arnout van de Rijt, State University of New York-Stony Brook, $7,000, The Determinants of Sex-Ratio Imbalance in Media Coverage. To explain the persistent gap in media coverage of men and women, gender theorists often point to the male-dominated field of journalism and reporting focused on “men’s issues.” But how much of the persistent inequality in coverage can be attributed to the structure of media organizations? Do female names receive less coverage than male names, even when considering their lesser representation in political and economic positions? And, how do coverage patterns change when women fill key editorial positions? This project will assemble and analyze a database of more than 20 million articles appearing in U.S. and Canadian news outlets between 2003 and 2014, alongside data on news organizations (e.g., the gender composition of the workforce and editorial boards) and the environments in which they operate (e.g., female political representation by constituency). In addition to creating datasets of interest to other researchers, the project represents a new area of sociology with the potential to elaborate on a series of further questions.
Shiri Noy, University of Wyoming, $6,992, World Bank Discourse on Health Sector Reform, 1980-2010. Noy’s project promises to open access to the archives of the World Bank and thereby provide a sociological perspective on operations of this important world actor, which has previously been absent. The proposal raises questions about how the organization influences policy, based in economic literature on organizations while arguing for a sociological perspective. It is an innovative approach, incorporating theories of globalization and welfare state development to examine discourse surrounding human capital, human rights, and neoliberal approaches to health sector reform. Importantly, the data created through this project will then be available to other interested researchers.
Hollie Nyseth Brehm, The Ohio State University, and Christopher Uggen, University of Minnesota, $6,960, Justice, Genocide, and Rwanda's Gacaca Courts. As a result of the 1994 Rwandan genocide, the Government of Rwanda instituted a traditional community-based justice system, called gacaca courts, to address these crimes. This proposal’s authors state that while these courts were widely heralded as innovative forms of transitional justice, there has not been sufficient analysis of the outcomes of them. To answer their research questions of who participated in the genocide, what sanctions were given, as well as the impacts on the larger Rwandan community, the researchers will assemble a database of court records as well as conduct in-depth interviews with gacaca judges, staff, and participants. This project has the potential to make significant contributions to the sociological literature on perpetrators of genocide and on sanctions and restorative justice.
Victor Ray, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, and Matthew Hughey, University of Connecticut $6,582, No Vacancy: Discrimination in an Online Rental Market. The investigators are undertaking an interesting study of how racial discrimination operates in the so-called “sharing” economy, specifically in the case of rental housing arranged through the AirBnB website. Theirs is an innovative proposal, building on existing research about attitudes toward racial integration of neighborhoods but applying the methodology to a new field of social interaction that provides for remarkable variations. The research project combines both quantitative and qualitative analysis and will contribute to advancing the discipline by introducing sociology to the examination of discrimination in the digital realm and the sharing economy.
Kristen Shorette, Stony Brook University, $6,384, Freedom from Discrimination as Human Right? The Global Human Rights Regime and the Diffusion of Affirmative Action since 1965. Today nearly every national constitution prohibits discrimination and major universities around the world employ affirmative action in admissions. However, the adoption of these efforts to thwart discrimination has spread unevenly across nations and universities. What explains the uneven spread of affirmative action? Shorette’s research aims to answer that question at national and university levels with particular attention to the emergence of a global human rights regime. Her project will examine “freedom from discrimination” generally as well as the particular groups that are protected, defined by race, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation. We can expect that this project will help uncover the complex processes driving the implementation of policies that enable social justice.
Nicholas Wilson, Yale University, and Damon Mayrl Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, $6,750, What Do Historical Sociologists Do all Day? Historical Methods in Theory and Practice. Wilson and Mayrl will use their FAD funds to produce a practical “how-to” guide for conducting historical sociology to join those available for nearly every other sociological method. Their source materials for the project will consist of approximately 50 semi-structured qualitative interviews with practicing historical sociologists, formulated to answer both theoretical and practical questions. They have already begun interviews—in-person and via Skype—and have lined up a significant group of respondents that will help them produce a book full of “lessons learned” as well as one or more theoretical articles on the production of knowledge in historical sociology. The researchers hope to advance the discipline by improving graduate training, reorienting methodological debates, and generating insights into the production of knowledge in the social sciences.
Amanda K. Damarin, Georgia Perimeter College, $7,000, Employer Use of Internet-Based Labor Market Intermediaries: Consequences for Inequality. Labor market intermediaries affect employment inequality because of the unevenness with which they connect workers with jobs and through their impact on perceptions of job candidates. This project’s researchers question the assumption that the anonymity of the Internet minimizes discrimination, especially due to new Internet-based intermediaries, including job posting sites, social networking services, and search engines, that can act as both levelers and reinforcers of inequality. They suggest decisions about hiring strategies vary along several dimensions including required skill-level, type of position, and ascribed identities. The PI will collect and analyze data via semi-structured, in-depth interviews with human resource personnel, hiring managers, and employment recruiters in the Atlanta area.
Sean Kelly, University of Pittsburgh, $7,000, Enhancing the Sociology Pipeline: A Capacity-Building Workshop for Secondary Social Studies Teachers. Degree growth in sociology has failed to keep pace with rising enrollment trends in higher education. This proposal seeks to promote sociology concepts and skills across the high school social studies curriculum to better prepare high school students for college, and to positively impact the number of students who consider sociology a viable field for their advanced study (college majors and minors). To accomplish this, the project co-PIs will conduct a workshop for 25 social studies teachers in a school district in Pennsylvania. The authors seek to expose project participants to various ASA-endorsed sociology teaching materials and ideas, to facilitate their sustained use of these materials long after completion of the workshop, and to encourage their contributions of additional materials and lesson ideas to the existing repository. This project may serve as a model for other such workshops to promote sociology early in the educational pipeline.
Jennifer Karas Montez, Case Western Reserve University, $6,950, Explaining Inequalities in Women’s Mortality across U.S. States. Women’s mortality increased in over 40 percent of U.S. counties between 1992 and 2006, with a strong geographic pattern. This research project seeks to explain the geographic pattern at the state level by analyzing the restricted-use National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File. The researcher hypothesizes that behaviors linked to premature death, such as smoking, are a function of a state's structural characteristics. She predicts that regional variation and educational attainment will explain a large portion of the variance in mortality rates. This proposal targets a relatively new area of interdisciplinary research on health disparities in which sociologists are becoming more central.
Emily Ryo, University of Southern California, $7,000, Immigrant Detention Study. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) operates the largest detention and supervised release program in the United States. This study will focus on family members of detainees using legal documents to examine bond hearings availability and the legal process for detainees and their families, as well as conducting a survey and interviews with families. The author proposes to investigate three questions about long-term immigration detention in the United States: What are the social, economic, legal, and health consequences of long-term detention on immigrants, their families, and their communities? What is the nature of bond hearings available to long-term immigrant detainees, and how do the detainees and their families experience and navigate this legal process? What is the feasibility of applying methodological innovations in research on incarceration/reentry to a longitudinal study of difficult-to-reach immigrant populations?
Michaela Soyer and Gary Zajac, Justice Center for Research, Penn State University, $7,000, Fatal Choices? – Investigating the Emergence of Negative Turning Points in the Lives of Young Male Offenders. The project uses a life course approach to focus on the social processes surrounding the development of negative turning points in the life of 25 juvenile offenders who were sentenced as adults. The authors will investigate how negative turning points manifest, using a research design consisting of interviews and content analysis The interviews will solicit information about periods in the offenders’ lives, including family status, activities, schooling, confrontations with the law, what they might have done differently, and what might have helped them to move to a different path. The primary purpose of the project is to connect juvenile justice policy with theoretical advances in life course research and to move juvenile justice policy away from its reliance on actuarial methods.
Zulema Valdez, University of California-Merced and Nancy Plankey Videla, Texas A&M University, $5,570, The Effects of Legal Status on the Social and Economic Incorporation of Mexican-Origin Mixed Status Families in the Southwest. The proposal’s authors suggest that unauthorized Mexican immigrants face barriers in the United States based on their legal status, which affects their social and economic integration. Yet, the investigators claim that few researchers have examined “unauthorized status” as a central determinant of Mexican incorporation in the United States; fewer researchers address how unauthorized status affects the incorporation trajectories of families and households, especially “mixed status” households. This study highlights the role of family and household structure on trajectories of integration, including the uneven incorporation experiences of family members within the same household. The researchers will conduct focus groups to extend their survey work on the household strategies used to overcome the stigma of an unauthorized status.
Maryann Bylander, University of London, $6,390, Borrowing Across Borders: Migration, Credit and Microfinance. This study explores how expanding access to credit interacts with international migration in rural Cambodia, specifically focusing on microfinance. There is increasing evidence that the growth of microfinance has resulted in the presence of migra-loans—microfinance loans that are used in tandem with household strategies of international migration. The author argues that little is known about how credit might enable or mediate migration decision-making, how it shapes migration experiences, or what the consequences of these connections might be. Through a household survey and life histories in areas where access to credit has recently increased (primarily through microfinance institutions), it explores two related questions: 1) how does increased access to credit shape migration decision-making, ability, and experience and 2) how and why are various forms of credit used in tandem with migration. Through a greater understanding of the links between microfinance, credit, and migration, this project is expected to provide insight into current debates of rural development, international migration, and microfinance.
Jonathan Eastwood and Peter Grajzl Washington and Lee University; Valentina Dimitrova-Grajzl, Virginia Military Institute; Nicolas Prevelakis Harvard University, $5,400, Tracing the Global Spread of National Identity: A Pilot Study. The purpose of this study is to gather the data needed to systematically test theories about the relationship between national identity, the modern state, and the modern economy. Rather than relying on archival sources, this pilot study will focus on Europe and recruit a series of experts to provide knowledge about specific cases. According to the lead author, there are a variety of theories about these processes and relationships and which are causal, but none has been subjected to systematic empirical tests. To develop the data for empirical tests the author proposes to code the entire set of European national identities from 1500 to the present. Eventually, a database tracking the global spread and development of national identity itself with be created and made publicly available.
Wendy Roth, University of British Columbia; Jenifer Bratter, Rice University; and Mary Campbell, Texas A&M University, $7,000, Measuring the Diverging Components of Race in Multiracial America. This project’s goal is to hold a two-day conference on the measurement of race and ethnicity as a multi-layered and complex social construction rather than a single dimensional variable. The conference will bring together faculty who work in this area but have differing perspectives as well as graduate students. A major purpose of the conference is to “interrogate measures” and provide guidance for improving social science data collection. For example, different measures may be needed for different race and ethnic groups. The conference will include paper presentations and a website to serve as a forum for analyzing the quality of measures that are available to the public. A second goal of the conference is to theorize the multiple aspects of race that can be measured. A third goal is to train students on using appropriate measures for different problematics.
Aliya Saperstein, Stanford University and Laurel Westbrook Grand State Valley University, $7,000, Surveying the Surveyors: Trends in Measurement and Knowledge Production in U.S. Social Surveys. This research project will analyze taken for granted social science knowledge in construcing common race, ethnicity, and gender and sexuality categories on national surveys and whether these measurements have changed over time. The study traces varying constructions of these common categories of difference, through a systematic examination of questionnaires, manuals, and other technical materials from the longest-running and most widely used social surveys. The authors will conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of the questionnaires, codebooks, interviewer instructions, and user’s guides produced by the American National Election Survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the General Social Survey, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The authors seek to uncover the assumptions about what it means to be a member of a particular race, sex, or sexual orientation implied by aspects of survey design. These processes not only shape the types of responses that can be recorded, they also constrain the kinds of analysis researchers can conduct.
Amy Lianne Stone, Trinity University, $7,000, Hidden in Plain Sight: Gay and Lesbian Inclusion in Urban Festivals of the South and Southwest. This study examines the involvement of gay men and lesbians in southern and southwestern urban festivals, focusing on cities that do not support gay rights and have low scores on the Municipal Equality Index. This is a study of public participation rather than of how minority communities position themselves separate, or in opposition to, dominant urban culture. The project uses mixed methods, including an emphasis on historical processes through archival work and oral histories as well as content analysis, interviews, and participant observation in current-day festivals. The archival research can help to identify how these rituals may be related to gay/lesbian political presence in these settings and can help create a visible LGBT presence.
James Michael Thomas, University of Missisippi, $7,000, The Co-Discursive Formation of Racial Civility and Racial Violence within U.S. Institutions of Higher Education.This project explores the contradictions between racist incidents and current narratives of diversity and civility at four public universities that have been responding to racial unrest. Using interviews and participant observation, the PI seeks to illuminate how institutional narratives of racial civility enable and constrain episodes of racial violence among American colleges and universities.
Mikhail Balaev, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, $7,000, Who Rules America Revisited. This research focuses on the power elite in the 21st century and proposes to document and analyze the corporate backround and network ties of senior government employees before and after they hold their government appointment. The PI will examine the affiliations of the senior executive government officials (SEGOs), defined as presidential appointees from 2004 to 2012. SEGOs’ employment and board memberships prior to and after their executive political offices will be coded in a set of variables that measure the type, sector, and industry of the organizations. This data collection includes identifying and coding not previously researched documents data from a variety of sources such as Financial Disclosures and Ethics Agreements letters. The project will use the collected information to develop a new database on the interlocking directorate ties for U.S. presidential appointees.
Carolyn Chen, Northwestern University, $7,000, Zen and the Art of Modern Corporate Productivity: Asian Religions and Instrumental Spirituality. This study focuses on how religious practices are secularized, transformed, and utilized in a different context. Specifically, it will examine how corporations use Asian religious practices, such as meditation, mindfulness, and yoga, in an attempt to improve the productivity of their employees. Data will be collected through 150 in-depth interviews with professionals, managers, and spiritual practitioners; observations of corporate wellness programs; and content analysis of corporate literature. In short, this project offers an analysis of the relationship between work, self, and spirituality in a postindustrial economy.
Ashley Currier, University of Cincinatti, Joëlle Cruz, Clemson University $7,000 for Diffusing LGBT Rights: U.S. Foreign Policy and LGBT Organizing in Côte d”Ivoire. This pilot project will investigate whether and how U.S. foreign policy on LGBT rights has affected gender and sexual diversity organizing in Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia. Specifically, this project asks how interested groups in two African nations respond to a positive U.S. stance on LGBT rights. The project will compare responses in Côte d’ Ivoire (a benign political climate) and Liberia (a hostile political climate) by pro- and anti-LGBT activists and responses by political leaders. In addition, the study asks how different groups, such as LGBT activists, anti-LGBT activists, religious authorities, and political officials and parties, have responded to the policy. Finally, the author hopes to gain an understanding of how do gender and sexual diversity politics intersect with human rights norms.
Kim Ebert, North Carolina State University, $6,993, The Role of Policy, Media, and Local Context in Shaping Symbolic Boundaries between Foreign- and Native-Born Groups. According to the author, the government plays a central role in defining the boundaries between immigrants and non-immigrants. These definitions have implications for the maintenance of racial and ethnic inequality. The author contends that in many cases, boundaries between native and foreign-born group stemming from immigration policy only become meaningful when they are disseminated to the public by means of the media. This research will investigate the relationship among immigration policymaking at different levels of government. The study examines three general areas : a 10 year analysis of trends regarding the purpose of the policies (receptive vs. exclusionary); an analysis of local newspapers framing of policymaking, and finally an analysis of whether these boundaries get translated into social boundaries between immigrants and non-immigrants.
Chunping Han, The University of Texas at Arlington, $6,997, Psychological Well-Being in Reform-Era China. This project is a sociological study of psychological well-being in reform-era China. According to the author, the sociological research on subjective well-being is far less extensive and systematic than what has been done by psychologists and economists. Specifically, the author intends to explore the definition, description, and the explanation of social and psychological sources of life satisfaction and psychological distress in transitional China. The author suggests that the results (based on in-depth interviews) will also shed light on policies and practices conducive to subjective well-being during large-scale, dramatic social and economic shifts that have occurred in China, and ultimately can be used to compare “transitional societies” with “developed societies.”
John W. Mohr, University of California- Santa Barbara and Amin Ghaziani, University of British Columbia, $2,000, Measuring Culture. The purpose of this grant is to convene a conference entitled “Measuring Culture.” The conference will bring together quantitative and qualitative scholars to discuss the difficulties related to measuring culture in order to forge a new set of common understandings towards measurement practices and theories as they relate to cultural analysis. Citing findings from other fields, the PI argues that small conferences are indispensible for paradigmatic shifts to take place. Based on this view, the PI states that forging common understand through a small conference format will move the sociology of culture forward and a coherent sub-field of scientific sociology. The result of this small conference should result in a special issue of Theory and Society or an edited volume.
Tiffany Taylor, North Carolina State University and Elizabeth Seale, State University of New York College at Oneonta, $5,760, Race and Place: A Comparative Case Study of Welfare-to-Work Service Delivery in North Carolina and Ohio. The purpose of this study is to compare welfare-to-work service delivery in rural counties of two states that serve different populations (North Carolina’s welfare population is predominantly black while Ohio’s is predominantly white). The study allows an examination of race, place and service in which rural poverty is particularly understudied. The focus will be on the challenges faced by agencies and organizations in both states and the place of race in how government employees implement TANF. The project will combine rural marginalization and critical race theory on welfare stigma to understand how both race and location interact to play a role in the potential effectiveness of welfare-to-work programs. The PIs will use these funds to code data from their interviews of case managers.
Rebekah Burroway and Michael Schwartz, State University of New York at Stony Brook, $7,000, Business Unity and the Collective Action of Large U.S. Corporations Faced with Protests, 2000-2010. Drawing on insights from social movement research, class theory, unity theory, organizational sociology, and economics, this research explores how large corporations in the U.S. respond to social protest directed against them. Although social movement and class theory have developed rich understandings of collective action, current research typically treats corporations as isolated actors responding individually to protest opposition. The project uses multi-level models, dyadic network analysis, innovative automated text analysis software, and a variety of archival data sources.
Andy Clarno, University of Illinois-Chicago, $5,000, The Empire’s New Walls: The Politics of Security in South Africa and Palestine/Israel. Through an analysis of walled enclosures in Johannesburg and Jerusalem, this project attempts to explain the proliferation of separation walls in the early 21st century. To carry out this research on the different forms of enclosure in these two societies, the PI uses a multi-method approach bringing together the tools of comparative urban ethnography and comparative historical sociology. The data collection focuses on four areas: the relationship between neoliberal restructuring and the political transitions in each state, the growth of marginalized populations, the politics of security, and the production of walled enclosures.
Sarah Damaske, Pennsylvania State University, $6,000, Gender, Inequality, and Unemployment: Men’s and Women’s Differing Social and Economic Costs. Since the 1950s, women and men have experienced similar rates of unemployment, yet there are surprisingly few studies of the differences between men’s and women’s experiences of unemployment or of the effects of their unemployment. This study will investigate differences in how working-class men and women experience job loss, negotiate possible returns to work, and navigate the familial effects of unemployment. By using a combination of qualitative interviews and audio diaries, the PI hopes to suggest policies intended to improve men’s and women’s life chances in the post-industrial economy.
Claire Laurier Decoteau, University of Illinois-Chicago, $7,000, Opening Pandora’s Box: The Vaccine-Autism Controversy and the Social Construction of American Biomedicine. A series of congressional hearings and vaccine court hearings has determined there is no causal link between common childhood vaccinations and the development of autism, and yet a recent study in Pediatrics found that one in 10 parents of young children refuse or delay vaccination. This project seeks to understand the connection between fears of the so-called “autism epidemic” and the increasing popularity of alternative vaccination scheduling for young children. The PI will utilize multiple qualitative techniques to explore parental decision making amongst a diverse group of new parents.
Steve Lopez, Ohio State University, $6,916, Downward Mobility in the “Lesser Depression”: Material, Relational and Attitudinal Responses. Within the current context of economic depression and vulnerability, this study will examine workers’ responses along three dimensions: material responses or practical adaptations to the actual or potential loss of income and wealth; attitudinal responses (i.e., changing aspirations, beliefs, and attitudes); and relational responses to others, including spouses, partners, children, peers, etc. as they struggle to adapt to or anticipate straitened circumstances. With the assistance of six graduate students, the PI will conduct extended, semi-structured interviews with 150 downwardly-mobile workers and use multi-method data analysis strategy of qualitative immersion and content coding for comparative analytic purposes.
Lizabeth Zack, University of South Carolina Upstate, $6,200, Another Shade of Green: Environmental Activism in Jordan. Despite evidence that activists and civil society groups have emerged across the Middle East over the past 20 years to address a variety of environmental challenges, research on political activism in the region has focused on Islamist movements and other popular campaigns against authoritarian rule. This project will look closely at grassroots and civil society campaigns around environmental issues in Jordan, drawing on information from newspapers, organizational websites, interviews, and government documents. The analysis focuses on the activists, their complaints and demands, how they mobilize, the role civil society plays in addressing environmental concerns in the region, and the outcomes and impact of movement efforts.
Orit Avishai, Fordham University, $7,000, Saving American Marriages: Marriage Education and the Politics of Morality. This project is a case study of the marriage education movement and aims to discern the mechanisms and modalities of interaction among ideologically opposed constituents of this movement and the identification of a political middle ground. The project’s research question is why marriage education is marked by collaboration rather than contention. Using fieldwork, interviews, and analysis of print and online sources, the case study will examine the conditions that diffuse potential polarization and inform political dialogue and compromises.
Mary Bernstein, University of Connecticut, $7,000, Crossing Boundaries: Workshopping Sexualities. This workshop will provide a venue where both junior and senior scholars can work to overcome the gap between qualitative and quantitative researchers and bring these camps into closer conversation. In addition, participants will join workgroups in their area of study; participate in dissertation master classes focused on methodological design; and consider critical issues within the discipline. Finally, this workshop will seek to bridge the study of sexualities across diverse sub-disciplines within sociology, and explore how the study of sexualities can change how sociologists think of other areas of research.
Shannon M Gleeson, University of California-Santa Cruz, $6870, Mobilizing Rights, Navigating Bureaucracies: Assessing the Legal Mobilization of Low-Wage Workers. Law and society scholars have extensively documented the barriers that employees face when pursuing legal mobilization in the wake of a workplace violation. Using survey research and follow-up interviews, the study examines processes of legal mobilization for low-wage workers, and in particular, the strategies workers use when making claims about their rights. While workplace violations may be commonplace, claims-making is not among the low-wage population. In order to understand the ways legal rights are pursued among vulnerable workers, the study will gather information on the claimant's workplace experience, knowledge about their rights, and decision-making process. the study will also uncover some of the strategies workers use when making claims on their rights. The study will also identify trends across major categories of workers - including different industries, genders, and immigration statuses. The results should be a broader understanding about how different sub-populations of workers understand and identify their rights.
Amy Lubitow, Portland State University, $6,914, Contesting Sustainability: Bicycles, Race and Place. The goal of this study is to develop a critical sociological theory of sustainable development that updates theories of gentrification. Using interviews, participant observation, and content analysis, the study will research how historical legacies of racial and economic inequality within Portland, OR, influence community opposition to a seemingly benign sustainable development project. The central research question is how and why community conflict regarding the proposed bike safety corridor erupted into a divisive issue. Similar conflicts in other parts of the United States suggest that urban planning related to sustainability may not actually serve all community members. Race and class tensions and conflicts such as those currently unfolding in Portland suggest that a generic approach to sustainable planning can become contentious. The research results should provide answers to conflict regarding the planning and implementation of initiatives developed under the guise of sustainability. This project will form the foundation of a larger, national-level comparative study.
Hiroshi Ono, Texas A&M University, $5,400, Globalization and Inequality in the Labor Market: The Study of Career Mobility in the Japanese Financial Sector. This project studies how macro-level global forces are shaping the behavior of firms and of individuals in the Japanese financial sector, with particular focus on the increasing influence of foreign firms. These firms bring employment practices that are more market-driven and less socially embedded compared to the Japanese status quo. The study will compare financial workers at domestic and international firms. The hypothesis is that that the loyalty to the firm—which Japanese workers are known for—is a factor of employment in Japanese firms, but not of Japanese culture. Thus, it is institutional not cultural factors that drive differences found among workers in foreign vs domestic firms. The co-existence of the foreign and the domestic in the Japanese labor market provides a test case for examining how local firms adapt to global pressures, and how workers navigate the changing institutional environment. The study will use in-depth interviews and econometric analysis of finance professionals in Japan..
George Steinmetz, University of Michigan, $7,000, Social Scientists and Imperial Politics: Britain, France, and Germany, 1930s-1960s. This project examines the nexus of science and politics, asking how imperial conditions shape the production of social science and how and whether researchers maintain their objectivity and distance. The middle third of the 20th century was the period in which sociological research became central to French and British colonial reform and in which Nazi Germany mobilized sociologists to plan its policies and strategies in Eastern Europe. The research builds on prior work and reconstructs the academic sociological fields in each of these countries and in their overseas colonies and zones of influence. Using archival research, the project will result in the construction of a database of all sociologists who worked on and in colonies and empires, their published and unpublished work, as well as interview with those who are still alive. The study will investigate the conditions that led some of these sociologists to support colonialism and others to reject it, as well as their lasting contributions to the analysis of empires.
Jessica K. Taft, Davidson College, $6,700, Social Movements and the Meaning of Childhood: Intergenerational Collaboration in the Peruvian Working Children's Movement. Public and scholarly interest in children’s political participation has grown significantly in the past 20 years. However, there is little research on children’s participation and the meaning of childhood within social movements. This project begins to fill this gap by exploring the interactions between children and adults in the Peruvian movement of working children—a movement that sees children as political subjects and seeks to create collaborative political relationships across age differences. Through document analysis, participant observation, and in-depth interviewing, this project will examine organizational and cultural discourses about childhood, institutional structures that facilitate and/or limit cross-age partnership, and how these cultural and structural forms shape participants’ lived experiences of childhood, adulthood, and the relationship between children and adults. By examining how childhood is constructed and experienced within this type of organization, this project will examine the durability and fluidity of the meaning of childhood.
Bin Xu, Florida International University, $7,000, Some Sufferings Are More Equal than Others: China 's Educated Youths and the Difficult Past. This project identifies and explains different interpretation of memories among the “educated youth” generation in China. Approximately 18 million urban Chinese middle and high school graduates were forcibly relocated to rural areas and “re-educated” in the 1960s and 1970s. These educated youths, now older adults, should have similar narratives about their suffering. However, their interpretations about the meanings and values of the suffering vary greatly. Using in-depth interviews and a survey, the study will answer two research questions: how do the former educated youths interpret their shared experience? What social factors can explain the variations in their interpretations? The hypothesis is that current socioeconomic status leads to variations in their interpretations of the past. Those educated youths who attained relatively higher socioeconomic status after the educated youth years are more likely to have a positive view about what their sufferings mean to their later life than those with lower socioeconomic status. The broader purpose of the project is to further understand the intersection between biography and history.
Erica Chito Childs, Hunter College, $7,000, "Mixed" Families in Australia: Exploring Race, Families and Difference Research. The purpose of this research is to explore contemporary attitudes towards “mixed” families in seven Australian cities. “Mixed” families—interracial, interethnic, intercultural, interreligious—are important phenomena, yet very little has been done on intermarriage in Australia in the last decade. The primary goal of this research is to use focus groups to explore contemporary attitudes towards mixed families, especially the experiences of intermarried couples and their families in Australia and the response of various communities to the growing number of mixed families. The seven cities were chosen based not only on the feasibility of being able to conduct the focus groups but also because these are large metropolitan areas with surrounding residential areas and slightly different populations that reflect ethnic diversity.
Shannon N. Davis, George Mason University, $6,885, Gender and Career Prioritization after the Recession Research. Bargaining theory argues that the partner who has the best bargaining position within a couple, or, the better outside options, typically has the most power. Historically this has meant that men have been able to mobilize their greater resources to prioritize their careers, including relocating the family for job opportunities. Given the recession and rapid job losses among men, the PI raises the question of whether couples are willing to reconsider prioritizing men’s careers when men lose jobs and women gain them. The author also seeks to understand the factors that affect couples’ decision-making processes, which influence the extent to which husbands and wives report supportiveness for relocating due to a hypothetical job opportunity for their spouse. The study employs a nationally representative sample using survey design that asks questions about employment history, including relocation and prioritization history as well as expectations about employment over the next year.
Heather Gautney and Chris Rhomberg, Fordham University, $6,900, Beyond the Media Capital: Flexible Specialization and De-agglomeration in the U.S. Film Industry Research. This research project examines the current re-structuring and geographic dispersal of the labor process in the U.S. film business. The PI focuses on the relations among state policies, investment in new production, impacts on the organization, the culture of film work, and the implications of these factors for workplace governance. Initially, the collapse of the old studio system in the 1950s and 1960s led to the breakup of a factory-like production process and the vertical disintegration of the industry. The results led not to spatial dispersal, however, but to renewed agglomeration in Los Angeles and new work. Data collection for this project will rely on participant observation, interviews with key informants, and print and online sources. A primary component of the research will be participant observation on three film sets for roughly eight months in order to gain an inside view of the new structure of work, informal culture, and everyday experience of the production process.
Josh Pacewicz, Stanford University, $7,000, The Tea Party as Intra-Republican Party Conflict Research. The Tea Party has attracted significant attention, but many questions about this phenomenon remain. In an attempt to answer these questions, the PI will analyze right-wing mobilization in two Iowa cities during the 2011-12 election. The PI analyzed these same cities in 2007-08 and will use prior research as a baseline to evaluate how Tea Party activists have transformed the local connection to national politics. The study’s central hypothesis is that the Tea Party represents the final stage of an intra-Republican Party fissure. In the past, local Party activities were funded by local business leaders, and these leaders were engaged in the Party. In subsequent contacts, activists increasingly rely on money from ideologically motivated PACs and those associated with Republican candidates. The PI will interview activists, conduct observation of Party meetings and Republican campaigns, assemble a research team to observe caucuses, and conduct a comparative analysis of campaign finance.
Amy E. Traver, CUNY-Queensboro Community Colleges, $3,515, The Social-Psychological Benefits of Volunteerism for Adolescent Girls: A Case Study of Believe Ballet Research. This case study of volunteerism links high school girls with physically-challenged primary- and secondary-school- girls through ballet. The Principal Investigator (PI) brings together two literatures—the social psychological research on adolescent girls’ development and research on adolescent volunteerism. In framing ballet as an appropriate activity for physically-challenged primary- and secondary-school-aged girls, this activity engages hegemonic conceptions of ability and femininity. Using standardized surveys administered to three cohorts of the program’s volunteers, the PI explores the relationship between girls’ volunteerism and their self-reported goals, self-esteem, and their relationships with others. The data collected as part of this project will add to interactional designations of ability/disability and beauty/grotesque. In addition it will connect disability studies to civic engagement studies.
Steven P. Vallas, Northeastern University, Beth Rubin, University of North Carolina- Charlotte, Donald Tomaskovic-Devey, University of Massachusetts- Amherst $6,250, Work and Inequality: Fostering New Perspectives in the Discipline Conference. Barriers between different areas of specialization within sociology have impeded sociologists’ ability to analyze and explain the generation of social inequality within work organizations, labor markets, and economic institutions generally. A broad intellectual movement has emerged in an effort to demonstrate how institutional environments, political contexts, and social relations at work combine to shape the distribution of job rewards. The PIs will host a two-day conference at Northeastern University with two primary goals: first, to strengthen sociology’s ability to account for the social and economic inequalities that have afflicted U.S. society in recent years; and second, to broaden public debate about workplace-based inequalities, which have too often remained the unchallenged jurisdiction of economic analysts. Conference participants will include senior and junior scholars.
Marc Dixon, Dartmouth College and Andrew Martin, Ohio State University, $7,000, for Social Protest and Corporate Change: Assessing the Impact of Corporate Campaigns. This project focuses on understanding the role of social movements in corporate behavior by examining 32 wide-ranging “corporate campaigns” waged by social movement organizations against corporate targets. Utilizing event-study analysis as well as qualitative comparative analysis, the authors will assess how these campaigns and protest actions can alter corporate practices and, additionally, determine why some campaigns are more successful than others. The project should contribute to an understanding of how outside forces/challenges impinge on corporate practices by moving beyond discrete case studies of particular campaigns in order to discern general factors that have more or less impact. This project contributes to the areas of collective behavior, social movements, and corporate social responsibility.
Pamela Elaine Emanuelson, University of South Carolina, $4,800, for Emergent Beliefs in Information-Poor Social Networks. The PI of this study will conduct experimental research on information-poor networks and network knowledge. The PI challenges the assumption that actors’ beliefs of a network’s structure are accurate in exchange networks in which they have information about only a few of the other members. The author hypothesizes that this is not the case, and that those in information-poor networks may develop common beliefs about network structure. The research will be conducted by undergraduate students and the results will be analyzed using the emergent beliefs about network structure and exchange outcomes as the dependent variables. The goal of this project is to connect research on information levels in networks with research on interaction outcomes.
Christy M. Glass and Peggy Petrzelka, Utah State University, $6,978, for Global Migrants, Guest Workers, and Good Mothers: A Study of Gender and (Con) Temporary Labor Migration to Spain. The authors seek to examine how gender affects policies about temporary labor migrants, and in turn, how these policies affect the hiring practices and experiences of labor migrants in Spain. The authors study these processes at three levels: macro (policies), meso (recruitment practices of employers), and micro (experiences of labor migrants). The project examines three components: priorities and assumptions that shaped this policy, the recruitment practices, and the experiences of the migrant women. The authors identify an assumption that migrants choose when and where to migrate without considering the role that employers play in creating and directing migration flows. Along with other scholars in the field, they hope to illuminate this gap.
Amy Hanser, University of British Columbia, $6,952, for Diversity on the Street: Food Vending, City Planning, and Cultural Narratives of the City. This study examines how cultural understandings of sidewalks and commerce influence the regulation of urban space. The author will conduct a comparative study of food vending in Vancouver and Portland and investigate the evolution of city policies toward sidewalk commerce (food carts), including experiences of vendors, public officials, and customers. Central to the analysis is the relationships between cultural discourses and economic forms, mediated by urban politics, as street vending moves from being seen as an unsanitary public problem to part of urban revitalization.
Carrie L. Alexandrowicz Shandra, Hofstra University, $6,990, A Longitudinal Analysis of Occupational Sex Segregation from Adolescence to Young Adulthood. This project will investigate the relationship between sex-segregated jobs during youth and sex-segregated adult jobs using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth and the Current Population Survey. Little research has examined the outcomes of the kinds of employment in which the majority of youth engage, that is, care work for girls and manual labor for boys. To better understand this relation as a process, the author proposes to examine the role of several intervening variables such as academic performance, course of study, family resources, and future expectations. The main objective of the proposal is to produce an occupational crosswalk that will be available online. Further, the author will examine the policy implications of her research findings for school-to-work programs.
Jody Agius Vallejo, University of Southern California, $6,900, for Class and Assimilation Among Latino Entrepreneurs in the Formal Economy. This study examines immigrant entrepreneurs’ assimilation and economic success in Los Angeles. Specifically, the author will study assimilation among upwardly mobile and middle-class Latino business owners. She seeks to understand why middle-class Latinos start businesses, the mechanisms that foster upward mobility, and how these vary by race and gender. These groups include those in non-traditional sectors such as professional services, in traditional sectors such as food services, and those non-middle class entrepreneurs in ethnic enclaves. The researcher will conduct 30 qualitative interviews in order to gather information about life histories including social networks and family involvement.
Elif Andac, University of Kentucky, $7,000 for Reconciling Diversity Among Nation Building: A Comparative Study of Ethno-religious Conflict in Turkey. This study investigates the conditions that result from diverse religious and ethnic communities living together in relative peace in the midst of conflict-torn regions of Turkey. Data will be collected from fieldwork and in-depth interviews for two comparison groups that will be analyzed with the diverse and relatively conflict-free community.
E.J. Bjornstrom, University of Missouri, Columbia, $5,279 for Neighborhood Built Environment and Individual Sense of Control: A Fundamental Cause Approach to Improving Population Health. This study examines the relation between residential built environments and individual sense of control, assuming that built environments are “fundamental causes of health”. Multilevel modeling and three data sets will be used to examine characteristics of the built environment including the provision of resources to aid routine activities and the facilitating of social relationships and individual sense of control.
Arina Gerstava, Washington State University, $3,193 for Developmental Links between Victimization and Offending. This study compares inter-individual differences in order to empirically test if there is co-development of victimization and offending over the life course. The PI uses the National Youth Survey data on the frequency of minor and serious crimes committed and victimization experienced (such as sexual and other physical attacks) to empirically respond to her hypotheses. These data will be used to model trajectories of offending and victimization using two data-analytic techniques—latent growth modeling and auto-regressive cross-lagged panel models.
Melinda D. Kane, East Carolina University, $6,084.00 for Creating Safe Space: Predicting the Presence of GLBT Student Groups on College Campuses. The goal of this project is to explain the presence of university-recognized GLBT student groups on the college and university campuses in six U.S. states, and why some campuses are more institutionally supportive than others. The Principal Investigator will use Hierarchical linear modeling to examine the importance of public opinion on campus, community resources, and institutional and political environments.
Pamela Popielarz, University of Illinois-Chicago, $7,000 for Schools of Bureaucracy: Fraternal Orders in the Industrializing Midwest, 1890-1920.The purpose of this study is to ascertain the link between the popularity of fraternal orders and the growing bureaucratic organizational form in the industrializing Midwest.The PI will investigate whether fraternal orders are “schools for bureaucracy” by incorporating a fixed division of labor, hierarchy of offices, formal rules, and permanent written files.
Pamela Quiroz, Vernon Lindsay, and Endea Murry: University of Illinois-Chicago, $3,800 for Marketing Diversity and the New Politics of Diversity: An Engaged Ethnography of Race, Space, and Place. This funded study is part of a larger ethnographic study of the race and class micro processes that are part of the larger Chicago school reform effort in the “new politics of desegregation”. The fourth year of data will be collected on a small cohort of African American male high school students selected from a highly-rated Chicago high school and a cohort of students not selected for the program. Once collected, this cohort data will be entered into the ethnography and the entire data collection effort will be analyzed.
Laura Stark, Wesleyan University, $6,900 for How Have Research Participants Affected Biomedical Research?. This study hypothesizes that human subjects’ beliefs, and the organizations that recruit them, can affect biomedical research practices. The interaction between human subjects and the bureaucratic structures that have been developed to protect them is the focus of the study. Oral histories will be used to create an initial data set of human subjects who lived at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health between 1953 and 1966; the years that heralded the beginning of a change in medical ethics that culminated in human subjects’ protections. The author proposes to link the subjects’ beliefs with changing medical practices.
Katherine K. Chen, the City College of New York and the Graduate Center, $5,900, Sustaining Innovative Organizing in Networks Across Multiple Environments: Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities-Supportive Service Programs. This research aims to understand the conditions under which networks of organizations that serve aging residents in a designated area can retain innovation. The PI hypothesizes that without sufficient coordination and support, networks risk fragmentation and thus fail to connect clients with services. This project is the first stage of an in-depth, comparative qualitative study that targets four "Naturally Occurring Retirement Community-Supportive Service Programs:" one private co-operative, one in public housing, one serving private and public housing, and one headed by a faith-based organization. These comparisons will help assess how such conditions affect the ability of these organizations to develop and sustain innovations. Content analysis of public and internal documents will also take place.
Bridget K Gorman and Jenifer Bratter Rice University, Kristen Schilt, University of Chicago, $5,534, Opting Out or Careers Deferred? Gender Differences in the Graduate School Experience. The purpose of this project is to investigate why women with PhDs in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematic) enter academia at lower rates than their male peers. Taking Rice University as a case study, the PIs will investigate whether gender and disciplinary differences exist in the graduate school experience, and if so, whether these differences translate into unequal outcomes for men and women. The research design follows a cohort of 2007-08 first-year graduate students from the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences, and humanities as participants in order to assess gender differences in MA/MS attainment, attrition rate, commitment to attaining a PhD, and aspirations to a career in academia. The study will investigate the third year of graduate school and to use latent growth curve models to examine how disciplinary versus individual characteristics shape graduate school success over time.
Vincent J. Roscigno, Ohio State University, $6,700, Political Legitimation and the Subordination of Indigenous Communities: The Trail of Tears and Wounded Knee Massacre. According to the PI, pivotal moments in Native American history provide a window into how race/ethnic subordination occurs and is legitimated by powerful actors, including the state itself. This research project will draw on historical work and sociological theory on legitimacy, politics, and inequality, in order to analyze legitimating discourses by institutional actors surrounding two consequential cases in Native American history: the Trail of Tears (1831-1839) and the Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890). Data will be drawn from thousands of reports and letters of correspondence, housed at the National Archives.
R. Tyson Smith, Rutgers University, $6,200, Informal Coping Mechanisms of US Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. According to the PI, there are currently more than 1.8 million American veterans of the Afghan and Iraq wars. A significant percentage of these men and women will return to the United States after their deployments with mental health problems. Since many of these veterans avoid or fail to attain mental health treatment and care, they rely on each other, close relations, or no one at all to get through their trauma and readjustment. The PI investigates informal networks of care and counseling that operate independent of health bureaucracies such as the Veteran’s Administration. The PI will use ethnographic research and interviews to examine the processes of informal coping and advising.
Arnout van de Rijt and John Shandra, Stony Brook University, $7,000, Why They Juice: The Contagiousness of Performance Enhancing Drug Use in Sports. The central objective of this project is to understand of the forces that drive performance enhancing drug (PED) use in sports. Both anti-doping policies in professional sports and the sports media emphasize individualistic reasons for PED use, specifically rational-economic-based decision making. However, initial findings from the PIs’ ongoing study of PED use in Major League Baseball suggests that the fundamental difference between using and non-using athletes is that the latter trained with other users before becoming users themselves. The data uses a longitudinal dataset on PED use in professional sports. To test the validity and reliability of these data, the PIs propose to construct similar longitudinal databases of drug-testing results for the Tour de France and the Ultimate Fighting Championship. The examination of these three different contexts will provide evidence as to whether the study results are generalizable.
Jessica Mullison Vasquez, University of Kansas, $7,000, Marriage Vows and Racial Choices: Family Dynamics and Assimilation among Latinos. This project uses in-depth, semi-structured interviews with multiple generations of Latino families to determine how marriage influences identity and incorporation processes. The project proposes to investigate whether Latino intermarriage with non-Hispanic whites facilitates the adoption of an "American" identity and integration into the mainstream for both parents and children versus another alternative. Since not all exogamous marriages are with non-Hispanic whites, this study will question whether intermarriage with a non-white racial group member encourages racial minority self-understandings. It will also examine whether intramarriage with Latino co-ethnics promotes ethnic solidarity and cultural retention. Interviews will be conducted in Los Angeles, CA, and Topeka and Kansas City, KS, two states with vastly different proportions of Hispanic populations.
Sharon Zukin and Philip Kazinitz, City University Graduate Center, Xiangming Chen, Trinity College, $5,435, Creating Cosmopolitan Communities: An International Workshop on the Effects of Migration, Gentrification, and Globalization on Local Shopping Streets. This grant is for an international workshop, to be held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, to organize a collaborative effort to mobilize teams of sociologists, including graduate students, from New York to Shanghai to examine the impact of migration, globalization, and gentrification on the local social spaces of shopping streets. To jumpstart the collaboration, the workshop will bring together two lead researchers from each of the six research sites: New York, Toronto, Amsterdam, Berlin, Tokyo, and Shanghai. According to the PIs this project calls attention to local shopping as a missing dimension of our understanding of the social, cultural, and economic interaction that takes place in cities. The result of the project should be a series of comparative scholarly articles on urban change and a book proposal.
Khaya Delaine Clark and Tyrone Forman, Emory University, $6,880, Racial Attitudes in Childhood: Conceptual Problems and Measurement Issues. This study seeks to improve the way in which racial attitudes are measured in young children by expanding the response categories to include the following options: “both” “neither” and “I don’t know” as opposed to the forced choice situations that are generally included in psychological tests of race preferences for children.
John M. Eason, Duke University, $7,000, Prison Proliferation and Rural Disadvantage. Most studies of incarceration study the supply side of the phenomenon or the growth of the prison population. In contrast, this study investigates why prisons are located where they are and what is the impact of location? Eason examines the effects of prisons on small towns in terms of economic development and population characteristics.
Elisabeth Brooke Harrington, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, $6,900, Reproduction of Wealth and Inequality in the U.S. and Europe: The Role of Trust and Estate Planners. This study focuses on how inequality in wealth is produced among the economic elite. Instead of examining the elite themselves, the PI scrutinizes the strategies of professionals who serve the wealthy, namely trust and estate planners, who help the rich shelter their money. The PI finds that these professionals play a vital role in the perpetuation of social stratification.
Tomas Roberto Jimenez, Stanford University, $7,000, Immigration, Assimilation, and the U.S. Host Society. Recent research on immigration to the United States emphasizes the assimilation and changing identities of post-1965 immigrants and their dependents. Rather than viewing immigration as a one-way process, this study asks how the growth of immigration affects the identities of U.S. citizens who have been in this country for three generations or more.
Caroline Lee, Lafayette College; Michael McQuarrie, University of California-Davis; and Edward Walker, University of Vermont, $7,000, Democratizing Inequalities: Participation without Parity?. The topic of this project has been referred to as “regressive progressivism” or the unintended consequences of the expansion of lay participation in government, corporate, and nonprofit decision-making. Some of these unintended consequences include the elevation of new industries, professionals, and bureaucracies to conduct “facilitated engagement.”
Paulette Lloyd, Indiana University, $7,000, Cooperative Exchanges in Confronting Transnational Crime. Transnational crime has become a global issue with nation-states embracing differing responses to the use of terrorism, the invasion of civil liberties, and incarcerations. The study informs discussions about whether the similarity of cultural and legal systems, shared memberships (focus theory), or nation-states pursuing their interests (realism) best explain international cooperation.
Frederick F Wherry, University of Michigan, and Nina Bandelj, University of California- Davis, $7,000, The Cultural Wealth of Nations. This conference proposal asks “How do stocks of “cultural wealth,” for example, in the form of heritage sites or indigenous crafts shape economic activities?” The conference explored how this form of capital is constructed and deployed in economic development or how the failure to do so dampens economic activities.
Gary Alan Fine and Alice Eagly, Northwestern University, $3,500, Bridging Social Psychologies: Building Linkages between Sociological and Psychological Social Psychology. The purpose of this grant is to support graduate student participation in a small conference that establishes links of theory and methodology between sociological and psychological approaches to social psychology in order to introduce the next generation of social psychologists to cross-disciplinary practices. The conference will explore similarities and differences between social psychology as practiced by sociologists and psychologists. Paired senior scholars will examine central analytical topics and prepare essays that address how social psychologists can establish cross-disciplinary research agendas.
Kathryn Gold Hadley, California State University-Sacramento, $7,000, Deconstructing the Model Minority Experience in an Urban High School: Educational Expectations and Ethnic Identities. The PI investigates how Asian American students at a low-income public high school manage their ethnic identities in the face of academic stereotyping and varied academic performances.
Annette Lareau and Kristen Harknett, University of Pennsylvania, $3,500, Thinking about the Family in an Unequal Society: A Workshop Proposal. Research opportunities for sociologists are increasingly stratified because younger scholars at non-elite institutions have higher teaching loads, fewer colloquia, and a lack of travel monies and fewer chances to obtain informal feedback concerning their work. The PIs ran a one-day workshop to provide such an opportunity for 20 qualitative and quantitative early- and mid-career researchers whose area is sociology of the family, but who are not employed at Research I universities.Along with efforts to advance the quality of future research in sociology of the family, the workshop developed a network for future collaboration and exchange.
Erin Leahey, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, $6,370, Straight from the Source: How Highly Cited Authors Explain their Influence. The PI analyzes an under-examined data set of interviews with authors of heavily cited science articles as to why they thought their work had become important.The thoughts, ideas, understandings, and “origin stories” of the authors themselves reveal that they think there is one dominant pathway to scientific influence—support of professional networks, novelty of the work, and usefulness to subsequent scholars.
Susan C. Pearce, East Carolina University, $6,996, Re-imagined Communities, Mnemonic Mirrors, and Europe’s 1989 Revolutions: Research on the Twenty-Year Anniversaries. In order to understand the social memories produced by the state and civil society, the PI conducted ethnographic research in Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, and Serbia as these countries commemorate the 20th anniversary of the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc of the former Soviet Union. The PI demonstrates that context matters.
Erin Ruel and Deirdre Oakley, Georgia State University, $7,000, Journaling the Public Housing Relocation Process: Home, Place and Strata in the Social Hierarchy.The goal of this project is to employ participant audio journaling and photo-elicitation, an innovative and little used methodology within the social sciences, in order to explore the lives of public housing residents as they are relocated to subsidized, private market housing.
Lindsey Wilkinson, Portland State University,and Jennifer Pearson, Wichita State University, $6,550, Exploring the Role of Heteronormative School Culture in the Sexual Identity Development, Disclosure, and Well-Being of Young Adults. The PIs analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health), and supplement it with in-depth interviews of young adults. The purpose of this data collection effort is to investigate how variation in heteronormativity within high schools impacts the well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults and the construction and disclosure of sexual identity in young adulthood.
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Esther Ngan-ling Chow, American University, $1,500, International Conference on Gender and Social Transformations: Global, Transnational and Local Realities and Perspectives.The conference, co-sponsored by the Women’s Studies Institute of China and the All China Women’s Federation, addressed the issues, social problems, and emergent phenomena that question existing theoretical paradigms of globalization and transnationalism from feminist perspectives.
Joanna Dreby, Kent State University, $7,000, The Effects of Parental Migration on Mexican Children’s Educational and Migratory Aspirations. According to the PI, tens of thousands of immigrants migrating from Mexico to the United States leave their children behind. The study asks whether parents are able to translate their sacrifices into gains for their children. Alternatively, does separation create such discord in their families that children’s grades suffer and they too migrate?The results show those with mothers in the U.S. have higher aspirations while those with both parents in the U.S. have lower aspirations.
Lynn Fujiwara, University of Oregon, $7,000, The Politics of Removal: Forced Deportations, Exclusion, and the Impact on Immigrant Families. According to the PI, contemporary immigration in the U.S. remains an often volatile, policy-driven matter. Recent policies have led to the increase of forced removals of undocumented and legally residing immigrants. This research studies the impact of these removals on a sample of Cambodian and Latino families.
Meredith Kleykamp, University of Kansas, $7,000, From War to Work: How Employers Shape Veterans’ Transition into the Civilian Labor Market. This research seeks to understand how recently separated military veterans make transitions back into the civilian labor force. In particular, it focuses attention on the role of employers. It measures whether employers exhibit discriminatory or preferential attitudes toward and treatment of military veterans in the hiring process.The PI found that employers did not discriminate but rather that there is a mismatch between veterans’ skills and available jobs.
Christina A. Sue, University of Colorado-Boulder, $6,884, John or Juan? How Mexican and Mexican-American Parents Choose Names for their Children. Selecting a name for a child represents an important cultural decision because they signify ethnic identity, particularly the identity that parents would like their children to have. For immigrants and their descendants, first names can be a powerful sociological indicator of socio-cultural assimilation. This study examines the naming practices of Mexican and Mexican-American parents who gave birth to children in Los Angeles County.
Tim Bartley,Indiana University, $6,000, Global Standards in Domestic Settings: "Corporate Social Responsibility" in Practice. The PI investigates if nation states play an important role in the shaping of how private standards of corporate social responsibility get put to use. The research documents differences between two types of corporate standards—labor conditions and environmental standards in China, Indonesia, and Mexico. The characteristics of governance systems determine the ease or difficulty in implementing standards.
Linda Dorsten, State University of New York-Fredonia and Yuhui Li, Rowan University, $6,000, Data Collection and Modeling with Hard-to-Study but Rapidly Growing Populations: Socio-Economic Development, Ethnic Population and Elder Health in China. The PIs answer the question of how elder health in China is affected by community resources in areas with high minority concentrations and limited socioeconomic development. They test a series of strategies for measuring age and health and gather individual-level and macro-level data.
Jill Esbenshade, San Diego State University; Roderick Bush, University of St. John’s; Edna Bonacich, University of California at Riverside, $6,000, Race, Labor and Empire. Funding for this project is for a mini-conference on Race, Labor and Culture, organized by the ASA labor and Labor Movements Section and the Association of Black Sociologists. The purpose is to bring together the section on race/race relations with that of labor/labor movements to discuss current dynamics that keep workers from uniting across color lines.
Michelle Inderbitzin, Oregon State University, $5,256, Research from the Inside Out: Collaborative Research and Writing with Inmates in the Oregon State Penitentiary.This is a project to train prisoners to collaborate with professional sociologists by engaging in research and writing on issues related to incarceration and changes wrought by increasing imprisonment rates, longer sentences, shift away from rehabilitation, and similar policy shifts.
Mark D. Jacobs, George Mason University; Paul Lichterman, University of Southern California; Ann Mische, Rutgers University, $1,500, Global Differences in Conceptualizing Culture. These funds were awarded to bring international scholars to a session organized by the ASA Culture section to create a dialogue on the differing concepts of culture in American, French, Swiss, Brazilian sociology. The proposal framed a number of questions to be answered by the dialogue such as “How can American sociologists communicate our cultural sociology with French counterparts?”
Sigrun Olafsdottir, Boston University, Karen Lutfey, New England Research Institutes, and Patricia Rieker, Boston University, $3,100 for Expanding Comparative Frames for Medical Sociology: Professionals, Patients, and the Public. This is the latest in a series of international conferences to encourage comparative research and fostering cross-national collaborations that focus on the relationship between social stratification and health outcomes. By failing to use a comparative framework, themes such as politics, health, and culture and health have been especially understudied by medical sociologists.
Janet K. Shim, University of California-San Francisco, $6,000, Cultural Health Capital: Developing an Approach to Understanding Health Care Inequalities. This study develops the PI’s concept of Cultural Health Capital (CHC), defined as repertoire of cultural skills, verbal and non-verbal competencies, and interactional styles that can influence clinical interactions accounting for social inequities in quality of health care.
Genevieve Zubrzycki, University of Michigan, $6,000, Nationalism, Religion, and Secularization in Quebec and Poland. This project focuses on issues related to the relationship between state reformation, religion, and nationalism by offering a comparative perspective between Poland and Quebec, countries that offer points of convergence and contrast. The study analyzes both institutional/structural dimensions and cultural representations.
Gianpaolo Baiocchi, Brown University; Marcelo K. Silva, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Ernesto Ganuza, Instituto para Estudios Sociales Avanzados; Arturo Alvarado, Centro de Estudios Sociologicos, $3,000, Civic Participation, City Governance, and Transitions to Democracy in Brazil, Spain, and Mexico. This project focuses on the decline in the power and autonomy of national states, and the growth of power and autonomy of local governments due to an expanded global economy and the growth of supranational organizations. The purpose of this project, the first step in a larger project, is to understand how local participatory democracy emerges Brazil, Spain, and Mexico.
Keri B. Burchfield, Northern Illinois University, $6,975, Not in my Neighborhood: Assessing Registered Sex Offenders' Experiences with Local Social Capital and Social Control. This project looks into the understudied effects of increasingly restrictive community registration laws for sex offenders. Data on sex offenders' perceptions regarding access to local social capital will be gathered by survey, and results will be used to inform criminal justice theory and these community-based policies.
Mary E. Campbell, University of Iowa, $3,600, Stress and Ethnic Misclassification by Observers. The purpose of this project is to study the effects of mis-classification or mismatch between others “observed” ethnic identities and individual’s own perceived ethnic identities. The project measures the stress white and Latina subjects experience when others perceive their race or ethnicity differently than they do by examining the level of cortisol present in the individual’s saliva.
William V. D'Antonio, Catholic University, and Steven A. Tuch, The George Washington University, $4,000, Religion, Culture Wars, and Polarization in the U.S. Congress, 1971-2006. These funds will be used to conduct the first phase of a study of the relationship between the religious affiliation of members of Congress and the polarization of Congressional voting on issues such as abortion and gay rights. Specifically, the PIs want to learn if roll call voting on abortion became more polarized between 1972 and 2004, and if so, what affect the religion of members of Congress played in this polarization.
Stephen Lippmann, Miami University, $5,400, The Social and Cultural Origins of the Radio Broadcasting Industry in the United States. This project examines the social and cultural dynamics that contributed to the emergence and evolution of the radio broadcasting industry in the United States from 1900-1934.He examines the importance of human agency in the processes of socio-cultural framing and organizational development.
Andrew London and Janet M. Wilmoth Syracuse University, $2,000, Military Service, Social (Dis)Advantage, and the Life Course. There are numerous unanswered questions concerning how military service directly and indirectly affects life-course trajectories including marriage, divorce, health, fertility, mortality, and socio-economic status. There are numerous longitudinal data sets that can be used to answer these questions. The purpose of this project was to hold a conference to create new collaborative networks that stimulated new empirical and methodological studies that use these data sets.
Leah Schmalzbauer, Montana State University, $5,730, Off the Migratory Map: Uncovering Unknown Family Survival Strategies. The purpose of this project is to study Latino incorporation and family survival in southwestern Montana, a non-gateway immigrant settlement area. Among the major questions addressed are how immigrant families survive without the benefit of ethnic enclaves, what is the role of women in survival strategies, and how does the reception of these immigrants affect assimilation?
Jane Sell, Texas A&M University, and Carla Goar, Northern Illinois University, $3,500, Expanding Experimental Investigations of Race/Ethnicity in Sociology. According to the PIs, experimental sociologists have not made a major contribution to the theoretical literature on race and ethnicity, especially in the study of groups rather than individuals. In order to increase the contribution of experimental research, the PIs organized a conference where participants identify incentives and barriers to experimental research in this area, map out topics that can be studied experimentally, and foster collaborations among established and new experimenters.
Steve Zavestoski, University of San Francisco, $4,300, Embodied Health Movements and Transnational Social Movements: Linking the Local and Transnational through the Spread of Environmental Hazards. Many health movements organize around contestations over the discovery, definition, cause, treatment, and prevention of environmental causes of illness.The PI proposes to focus on social movement organizations in the global South, their formation, strategizing, and outcomes.
David Fitzgerald, University of California-San Diego, and David Cook-Martin, University of California-Irvine, $5,500, Race and Immigration in the Americas. This study investigates the factors that explain racial and national origin preferences and quota systems in the Americas over the last 150 years. It employs a of a database consisting of racial and national origin preferences in 22 countries’ immigration laws. The PIs find that liberal regimes had more racialized policies compared to authoritarian regimes especially when interest groups are involved in the process.
Norma Fuentes-Mayorga, Fordham University, $5,467, The Role of Moroccan Mothers on the Education Choices and Work Trajectories of their Daughters in Amsterdam. The purpose of this project is to understand how immigrant Moroccan mothers in Amsterdam influence the educational and work activities of their daughters.She examines a variety of situations such as the role of immigrant mothers as “brokers” for their daughters rather than their sons.
Erik Larson, Macalester College, $5,500, Coup or Commission? Legal Consciousness, Political Contention, and Reconciliation in Fiji. The PI interviews political elites and ordinary citizens in Fiji, the site of a recent coup and ongoing ethnic tensions to understand the ways that law affects social and political change and popular thinking, especially when racial and ethnic tensions are a significant part of the context.The PI found that members of the public understood law and politics as distinct from the state.
Patricia Madoo Lengermann, The George Washington University, and Gillian Niebrugge, American University, $3,100, Professing Sociology: A Study of the ASA Teaching Resources Manuals. The goals of this project include recovering missing early editions of the ASA’s Teaching and Resource Manuals; constructing a history of the project including its reception by the sociological community; and an analysis of the relation of the manuals to the functioning of the discipline. This analysis will cover issues of continuity and change in sociological subfields, in intellectual skills seen as important for the socialization of new members of the discipline, pedagogical practices and technologies used by sociologists, and the characteristics of sociologists who publish their syllabi in these sets.
Virag Molnar, the George Washington University, $5,500, The Great Budapest Rat Massacre: A Case Study in Urban Public Health. This is an historical and sociological case study of a massive rat control project undertaken in Budapest, Hungary in 1971 and 1972 and its aftermath. It focuses on institutions, policies, and historical events that explain the city’s 30-year success in improving public health despite its resource-poor condition.
Ebenezer Obadare, University of Kansas, $5,500, Miss Bell’s Girls: Gender Emigration and the Socio-Cultural Aspects of the Decline in Health Services in Nigeria. This study relates the efforts of the British Colonial Government in Nigeria to recruit, train, and raise the competence and status of Nigerian nurses to the degradation of the Nigerian public health care system. As a result of the transformation from the nursing profession as menial labor to a profession for the elite, the nurses were able to emigrate from Nigeria and withdraw their contribution from the state and civil society.
Dina G. Okamoto, University of California-Davis, $5,500, The Civic and Political Incorporation of immigrants in Non-Traditional Gateways. This study integrates the sociology of immigration with the sociology of social movements. Okamoto examines patterns of collective action among new immigrant groups, especially in non-gateway cities—Charlotte, NC, Atlanta, GA, and Salt Lake City, UT—and builds a theoretical framework that moves beyond individual adaptation of immigrants.
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