September/October 2010 Issue • Volume 38 • Issue 7

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Obituaries

Deaths

Lynn Mulkey, University of South Carolina-Beaufort, died of peritoneal cancer on February 13, 2010. She was a dedicated teacher, an accomplished and driven scholar, and a passionate sociologist.

Dorothy Newman died December 19, 2009, at the age of 96 from congestive heart failure and pneumonia at Hope Hospice in Fort Myers, FL.

Glen T. Nygreen, Lehman College Senior Vice President of Student Affairs emeritus and founding administrator, died on February 16, 2010, at the age of 91

Joseph B. Perry, Professor Emeritus at Bowling Green State University, died on May 20, 2010, at the age of 80.

Jana Pershing, San Diego State University, died on July 24 after a 16-month battle with cancer. Her partner, Dan Blanchett, set up a memorial website for her at: janapershing.com/index.html.

Philip Selznick, professor emeritus of law and sociology at the University of California-Berkeley and a leading expert in the sociology of both law and organizations, died June 12. He was 91.

Mary E. Weber Goss, Cornell University Medical College, died suddenly on June 24, 2010, at her home in Piscataway, NJ.

Paul R. Wozniak, chair of the Department of Sociology at Western Kentucky University, died unexpectedly June 23, 2010. He was 68.

Obituaries

Marshall Barron Clinard
1911–2010

One of the world’s preeminent sociological criminologists, Marshall Clinard, died in Santa Fe, NM, May 30, at the age of 98. In a career of unsurpassed breadth, Marshall studied both conventional and white-collar crime and conducted research in developing and advanced countries alike. An inveterate traveler and endlessly curious about the human condition, he posed fresh questions about crime—such as how to explain low crime rates in modern (Swiss) cities—and mounted ambitious and creative research projects to answer them, including his major investigation of offenses by America’s largest industrial corporations.

Born in Boston, Marshall earned bachelors and masters degrees at Stanford, and his sociology doctorate at Chicago, where he worked with three past or future presidents of the American Sociological Association: Edwin Sutherland, Herbert Blumer, and Ernest Burgess. Impressed at Chicago by the importance and worth of qualitative research, after graduation he nonetheless soon found himself serving during World War II as a chief statistician in charge of criminological data for the federal government, taking positions in the Census Bureau and in the Enforcement Department of the Office of Price Administration. He also served two brief academic appointments, at Iowa and Vanderbilt, before moving in 1946 to the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he worked until his retirement in 1979.

During his long career in Madison Marshall employed an eclectic mix of methods in his research in a wide range of countries, including Sweden, India, Switzerland, and Uganda. His was a prolific career that produced 11 books, numerous articles, and many honors, and one that extended well into his "retirement," during which he conducted new research, wrote three new books, and oversaw the publication of new editions of three of his earlier books. He served on several United Nations congresses and was elected president of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, and he won many honors and awards, including the American Society of Criminology’s (ASC) Edwin H. Sutherland Award for outstanding contributions to criminology.

The Sutherland Award had very special meaning for Marshall. He had gone to Chicago specifically to study with Sutherland, who immediately made Marshall his research assistant for the project that led to Sutherland’s classic and most famous book, White Collar Crime (1949), a phrase Sutherland had introduced into the American lexicon during his presidential speech 10 years earlier at what was then the American Sociological Society. Despite only a year’s work with Sutherland—who decamped to Indiana University the following year—Marshall always regarded him as his principal mentor.

Sutherland’s influence is especially registered in Marshall’s large body of work on corporate lawbreaking, which reached from his very first book (based on his wartime work on business violations of federal pricing laws), The Black Market: A Study of White Collar Crime (1952), to his last three decades of research that produced three more books on this topic. Indeed, Corporate Crime (1980) was his effort to replicate and expand upon Sutherland’s groundbreaking study, as Marshall felt that the field of criminology had all but abandoned the important study of corporate lawbreaking in the intervening three decades. Thirty years later the book remains the most comprehensive effort to chart and explain the rates and variety of corporate violations and their legal regulation, and it was republished in 2006 as a classic in criminology and law.

Much as he had been inspired by Sutherland, Marshall inspired his many graduate students with an infectious quest to understand criminality so that societies could abate it and increase justice. He engaged them with high expectations and a teasing jocularity, and co-authored a number of books with former students, including Criminal Behavior Systems (Richard Quinney), Crime in Developing Countries: A Comparative Perspective (Daniel Abbott), Corporate Crime (Peter Yeager), and Sociology of Deviant Behavior (Robert Meier). The 14th edition of the latter book was published this year, more than a half-century after its inaugural edition in 1957.

Marshall leaves his second wife, Arlen Runzler Westbrook, his children Marsha Clinard and Stephen Clinard, four grandchildren, and five great-grandchildren. His first wife, Ruth, and son Lawrence preceded him in death.

A special session commemorating Marshall is being planned for the ASC meetings in San Francisco this fall.

Peter Cleary Yeager, Boston University

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Mary E. Weber Goss
1926-2010

Mary E. Weber Goss, Professor Emerita of Sociology at the Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical Center, Cornell University, died suddenly on June 23, 2010, at her home in Piscataway, NJ.

Mary E.W. Goss brought to sociology her Midwestern friendliness, intellectual curiosity and insights, honesty, and high professional standards. She was bright, hard working, and generous in sharing her sociological knowledge with colleagues and students. Her training in sociology began at the University of Iowa, where she earned an honored BA with distinction, Phi Beta Kappa membership, and was awarded the Chi Omega Sociology Prize (1947). In 1948, she earned the MA in sociology, also at Iowa. As a graduate student at Columbia University where she was a Gilder Fellow, she studied with Robert K. Merton, among others, and earned the PhD in 1959.

Mary Goss contributed to our field through her scholarship in teaching, research, editorial work, writing, and tireless participation in the ASA, the Eastern Sociological Society, and other professional organizations. Her work was especially outstanding in what became the growing specialty of medical sociology and public health.

Her doctoral research, titled "Physicians in Bureaucracy," reflected her interests in social organization and the professions. It addressed the problem of how persons trained for a work role, mainly as autonomous professionals, function when employed in a more formal bureaucratic structure, such as a hospital. One conventional sociological expectation at the time held that bureaucratic norms and professional norms were in conflict and that professionals employed in a bureaucratic organization would be subject to great role strain. The dissertation took this view as problematic and tried "to search out structural mechanisms that serve to reconcile such contradictions." The research developed the idea that both professional employees and bureaucratic organizations arrived at new structural arrangements that reduced conflict. The dissertation, completed in 1959, was selected for publication in 1980 in the Arno Press collection of Dissertations on Sociology, under its full and more informative title "Physicians in Bureaucracy: A Case Study of Professional Pressures on Organizational Roles."

Early in her career, Mary taught sociology at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and at Smith College. But it was her research and scholarly contributions to the emerging specialty of medical sociology that defined her career.

Mary skillfully managed both family and professional roles during the stressful years of doctoral study and early research career, beginning in 1951. Her husband, Albert Goss, was then in the department of psychology at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. From then until 1966, she juggled joint residencies that involved weekly or biweekly commutes by railroad between Massachusetts and New York City. Their son Charles’s care from infancy to early teens involved complex interactions between parents and caring others. Then, in 1966, life became less complex when Albert joined Douglass College, Rutgers, New Brunswick and they began their residency in Piscataway, thus simplifying her travel to daily rail commutes between New Brunswick and New York City.

While at Columbia, Mary became active in research on the functioning and evaluation of the Comprehensive Care and Teaching Program at The New York Hospital, Cornell Medical Center (now the Weill Cornell Medical Center). At Cornell, she worked closely with George G. Reader, MD, Livingston Farrand Professor of Public Health, contributing significantly to the early development of medical sociology. She contributed to a wide range of studies on the delivery and effectiveness of health care. She was the author, co-author, or contributor to more than 30 journal articles, chapters, and books in medical sociology. From 1957 to 1962 she held several research positions in the Cornell University Medical College. In 1962, she accepted a faculty appointment as Assistant Professor of Sociology in Cornell’s Department of Medicine. In 1973, she was promoted to full Professor of Sociology in Public Health in Cornell’s Department of Public Health, where she continued her research along with teaching and administrative duties until her retirement in 1992. Her students were future physicians to whom she introduced a sociological perspective on health care. Many of her colleagues were physicians or other health care professionals for whom she reinforced sociology’s importance for understanding health behavior and delivering health care.

Mary also contributed editorial services to the field through roles with the American Sociological Review, Social Problems and other publications. From 1976-78, she was the editor of ASA’s Journal of Health and Social Behavior, where she demonstrated careful and responsible editorial judgment and style.

Her contributions to the specialty of medical sociology were formally honored by the ASA Section on Medical Sociology, which presented her with the Career of Extraordinary Service Certificate in 1993 and the prestigious Leo G. Reader award in 2000.

Mary Goss was a cheerful colleague, good friend, and faithful sociologist. She enjoyed life to the fullest. At home she thoroughly enjoyed meals prepared by Albert. She was daring and experimental with both food and wines. Unknown to most people was her talent for designing and creating her own gowns for special occasions. She also enjoyed her flower/vegetable/herb garden. She liked good music and conversation.

Mary is survived by her husband Albert, a son Charles and his wife Karen, a granddaughter Jessica, grandson Derek, and a brother and sister with families in the Midwest. She will be greatly missed by her family, friends, and associates. With her passing the field of sociology has lost not only an outstanding scholar but also a strong advocate and practitioner of the discipline.

Charles R. Wright, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania

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Philip Selznick
1919-2010

With the death of Philip Selznick on June 11 at age 91 in his Berkeley home, the social sciences lost one of its 20th-century giants. He was a true innovator in the sociology of organizations, institutions, the sociology of law, and social philosophy.

As a youth and college student (City College of New York) during the Great Depression years, Selznick was one of those many Trotskyite and other radical youths (including Seymour Martin Lipset, Daniel Bell, and Irving Kristol) who later became noted sociologists and commentators. One of his subsequent books, The Organizational Weapon (1952) was a brilliant analysis of the ideals, strategies, and tactics of radical cell organizations, and perhaps a coming to terms with his own past.

Among his many publications written over six decades, the following are most notable:

My own reading of the man is that these aspects of social inquiry were his greatest passion. Certainly all my dialogues with him ended up there.

The latter years of his career were spent in the Berkeley Law School, where he was the intellectual entrepreneur in creating and leading the Center for the Study of Law and Society, the graduate program in Jurisprudence and Social Policy, and an undergraduate major in legal studies—all distinguished and all remarkable, given the history of resistance to such innovations in many law schools.

Such was Selznick’s catholicity and reach that he befriended colleagues from many departments and many ideological and political persuasions. This was vividly seen at a gathering honoring him in his home about one year before his death. Most of those gathered had difficulty speaking with one another, but all exuded affection and admiration for Philip.

Selznick joined Berkeley’s Department of Sociology in 1952 as an Assistant Professor after teaching at the University of Minnesota and University of California-Los Angeles. He was a good departmental citizen, though not as aggressive as Herbert Blumer, Seymour Martin Lipset, and Reinhard Bendix during its institution-building years of the 1950s.

His greatest moments in the department and on the campus came during his chairmanship, 1963-67, which coincided with the explosive years of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) and its aftermath. He was a model chair, listening well, responding sensibly and rationally to the passionate arguments and actions of colleagues and students, and keeping a steady hand on departmental affairs. Yet, he also entered the fray. During the FSM he took a strong stand favoring free speech and expanded student political activity on campus (while rejecting extreme militancy) and debated publicly with colleagues like Nathan Glazer on his right. During the height of the 1964 crisis he played a central, mediating role on the Committee of 200, a faculty group that contributed responsibly to the faculty resolution of December 8, 1964. I always stood in admiration of his unusual synthesis of advocacy and peace making.

In the spring of 1964 Philip and I co-taught—at his initiative—the required theory course for first year sociology graduate students. Many students outside sociology also took or audited the course. Though I had taught the course before and knew him through our six years together in the department, I did not quite know what to expect from this powerful intellect whose theoretical predilections differed in some ways from my own. For me the adventure was a glorious one. We generated a format for each two-hour meeting: Either he or I would begin with a half-hour discussion on the topic of the week (for example, Weber); the other would respond for 20 minutes; we would converse for a while, and then the class would join for the final 45 minutes. That was a good mix, but what made things so special was the quality of discourse: High-level, relevant, sometimes electric, occasionally competitive, always interesting, and always mutually respectful. To this day I attribute those ingredients mainly to Philip and his intellectual style. I also co-taught that course with others—Kingsley Davis, Art Stinchcombe, and Michael Burawoy—but those experiences never came close to the intellectual heights I experienced in 1964.

I must conclude on a personal note. Though I would not describe my relationship with Philip as intimate, we maintained a positive friendship over all those decades from the late 1950s into the 21st century.

I remember with special affection his role during the 1960s when I was receiving numerous offers from other institutions. Most of my other colleagues, even friends, stood idly by on such occasions—it seemed the departmental style. But on every occasion Philip took the initiative to contact me, to express his and the department’s support for me, to laud my career in sociology, and to urge me to stay at Berkeley. These are the moments one remembers.

Neil J. Smelser, University of Calfornia, Berkeley

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Steven Vago
1937-2010

Steven Vago, age 73, passed away on June 30, 2010, after battling lung cancer. He was born in Debrecen, Hungary, on June 12, 1937.

Steven was a brilliant student and athlete, and one of his greatest joys was playing on his high school water polo team in a country that was notable for its international dominance of the sport. At the age of 19, he became one of the legendary Hungarian Freedom Fighters during the 1956 uprising and revolution. He escaped to Austria just hours before the invading Soviet Army closed the border between Hungary and Austria.

Even though officially classified as a Displaced Person, he was able, through energy and ingenuity, to work his way across Europe and eventually make his way to America. Once in the United States, he briefly joined his childhood friend, Sandor Kozak, in St. Louis, MO. Shortly thereafter, he matriculated to the University of Alabama where he received his BA in sociology.

Upon graduation, Steven returned to St. Louis to further his graduate education at Washington University, where he earned two PhDs—one in sociology and one in anthropology. While in graduate school, he was an integral part of the creation of an alcohol treatment program at Malcolm Bliss Hospital in St. Louis.

Steven joined the faculty of the Department of Sociology at St. Louis University after finishing his graduate studies and became a full professor there by the age of 37. Thereafter, he chaired the department several times, teaching at St. Louis Umiversity for over 30 years. During the 1970s, Steve was asked by the United Nations to work for its member agency UNESCO, and he then worked in Paris for several years in their Office of Population and Demography.

During the years of Steve’s involvement in the field of sociology, he was frequently asked, by universities throughout the United States and Canada, to participate in a variety of discussions addressing the legal and social changes occurring in the former Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. He often chaired summer sessions in Population and Demography at the Sorbonne in Paris. A prolific author, he produced 10 editions of Law and Society, the most widely used college textbook on the subject in the discipline, and a further six editions of the renowned textbook Social Change. Both texts have been translated into a variety of languages, including Chinese, and are being used in universities around the world.

In 1975, he met and married Kathe Hartley, a St. Louis on-air reporter working for the CBS-owned KMOX Radio in St. Louis. At the end of his teaching career in 2001, Steven and Kathe retired to Bellingham, WA, where he enjoyed kayaking, driving his convertible, reading by the fireplace, and continuing to work on updating the manuscripts for the successive editions of the textbooks that he authored. His friends uniformly describe him as an elegant, cosmopolitan, and charming man with immense European sophistication, whose great joys in life were his wife, swimming, the theater, a meal in a fine French restaurant, and a glass of truly excellent champagne.

It is suggested that memorial donations be directed to the Whatcom Literacy Council in Bellingham, Washington (www.whatcomliteracy.org or 2205 Elm Street, Bellingham, Washington, 98225).

William A. Brandt, Jr., and Kathe Hartley

The obituary also appeared in the Bellingham Herald Newspaper

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