ASA Anti-Harassment Resources
ASA Working Group on Harassment
Version August 1, 2018
- Relevant Programming at the Annual Meeting
- ASA Working Group on Harassment
- ASA Anti-Harassment Policy for the Annual Meeting
- Resources (Sociology, Nationwide, Federal Government)
- Resources for Campus Leaders (Training, Internal, External)
- Reports about Harassment at Academic Meetings
- Current Conversations
- Research on Sexual Harassment at Conferences and other Sociological Research
1. RELEVANT PROGRAMMING AT THE ANNUAL MEETING
IF YOU EXPERIENCE HARASSMENT at the ANNUAL MEETING: Call convention center security 215-418-4950 first if that is your location. They will be able to direct police to your specific location much more quickly than you. You are encouraged to immediately report the incident to ASA Executive Officer, Nancy Kidd, at firstname.lastname@example.org, (646) 408-9063 or to the Director of Meeting Services, Michelle Randall, at email@example.com.
Call (215) 985-3333 to reach the 24/7 Philadelphia Rape Crisis Hotline.
If you are in immediate danger, call the police 911.
For more details, see RESPONDING TO AND PREVENTING HARASSMENT AT THE 2018 ASA ANNUAL MEETING
Three complimentary workshops have been organized by and with members of the Working Group for ASA 2018:
- “Bystander Intervention for Combating Sexual Misconduct in Sociology: Everyone Can Be Part of the Solution” (co-sponsored with Sociologists for Women in Society),
- “Sexual Harassment in Professional Associations,” and
- “#MeTooPhD: Addressing Sexual Violence in and through Sociology.”
Harassment is an institutional, systemic, and cultural problem within academia. Harassment can be based on age, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, language, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression, disability, health conditions, socioeconomic status, marital status, domestic status, or parental status (hereafter, simply harassment). Colleges and universities are gendered organizations that are especially susceptible to the power differentials and toxic masculinity that breed harassment. Sexual harassment frequently results from a desire to prove the perpetrator’s masculinity, rather than to pursue sexual pleasure/gratification. Even when sexual harassment is motivated, in part, by sexual or romantic interest, it is also always about the abuse of power and status. It happens to men as well as women. People of color and people from sexual- and gender-minority (LGBTQ) report even higher rates of incidences of harassment and microaggression.
We often hear of harassment—sexual, racial, and other forms— at professional meetings, including ASA’s Annual Meeting. In 2017, Council appointed a Harassment Working Group to identify steps ASA might consider taking to both prevent and respond to misconduct at our Annual Meeting. The Working Group serves two important purposes:
1) advising the Council on relevant policy issues,
2) educating our membership, including helping direct members to appropriate outlets for support and/or reporting.
Steps ASA has taken:
• ASA has revised and integrated the harassment policy into the meeting registration process. All meeting attendees must agree to follow the policy.
• The policy is now printed in the program book, available on the app, and displayed prominently throughout the meeting site.
Working Group members have written articles for Footnotes:
• “Can Anti-Harassment Programs Reduce Sexual Harassment?” by Frank Dobbin and Alexandra Kalev
• “#MeToo and the ASA Working Group on Harassment” by C. Shawn McGuffey
• “Sexual Harassment Training: Promises, Pitfalls, and Future Directions,” by Justine Tinkler
What ASA Sections can do:
The Working Group suggests that each section discuss whether there are better ways to organize social activities at the Annual Meeting to reduce the potential for harassment. We recognize that social events hold an important role for sections, and we hope that these events can be organized in ways that ensure full, comfortable, and safe participation for everyone.
3. ASA ANTI-HARASSMENT POLICY FOR THE ANNUAL MEETING
ASA has received notice from several sources that graduate students and faculty have experienced racial and sexual harassment at various conference venues. ASA reminds everyone: Our Annual Meeting is convened for the purposes of professional development and scholarly educational interchange in the spirit of free inquiry and free expression. Harassment of colleagues, students, or other conference participants undermines the principle of equity at the heart of these professional fora and is inconsistent with the principles of free inquiry and free expression. Consequently, harassment is considered by ASA to be a serious form of professional misconduct.
The following Anti-Harassment Policy outlines expectations for all those who attend or participate in ASA meetings. It reminds ASA meeting participants that all professional academic ethics and norms apply as standards of behavior and interaction at these meetings.
ASA is committed to providing a safe and welcoming conference environment for all participants, free from harassment based on age, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, language, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression, disability, health conditions, socioeconomic status, marital status, domestic status, or parental status (hereafter, simply harassment). “Participant” in this policy refers to anyone present at ASA meetings, including staff, contractors, vendors, exhibitors, venue staff, ASA members, and all other attendees.
All participants at ASA meetings are expected to abide by this Anti-Harassment Policy in all meeting venues including ancillary events as well as official and unofficial social
- Follow the norms of professional respect that are necessary to promote the conditions for free academic interchange.
- If you witness potential harm to a conference participant, be proactive in helping to mitigate or avoid that harm.
- Alert conference security personnel or law enforcement if you see a situation in which someone might be in imminent physical danger.
Harassment of any participant is unethical behavior under the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics. Harassment consists of a single intense and severe act or of multiple persistent or pervasive acts which are demeaning, abusive, offensive, or create a hostile professional or workplace environment. Harassment may include sexual solicitation, physical advance, or verbal or non-verbal conduct that is sexual in nature; it may also include threatening, intimidating, or hostile acts; circulation of written or graphic material that denigrates or shows hostility toward an individual or group; epithets, slurs, or negative stereotyping based on group identity.
Attendees are encouraged to immediately report instances of harassment during the Annual Meeting to the ASA Executive Officer, Nancy Kidd, at firstname.lastname@example.org, (646) 408-9063 or to the Director of Meeting Services, Michelle Randall, at email@example.com.
To read the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics in its entirety, visit the ASA homepage and follow the link to “Ethics.”
- ASA Working Group on Harassment: RESPONDING TO AND PREVENTING HARASSMENT AT THE 2018 ASA ANNUAL MEETING
- ASA Working Group on Harassment: STOPPING HARASSMENT IN YOUR DEPARTMENT: A Resource for Department Chairs
- Sociologists for Women in Society (SWS) Discrimination and Academic Justice Committee
- Sociologists for Women in Society Faculty Under Attack Resources
- Sociologists for Trans Justice
- National Sexual Violence Resource Center maintains a directory of victim/survivor support organizations, including services for immigrants, non-English speakers, people with disabilities, and LGBTQ individuals.
- National Sexual Assault Telephone Hotline (1-800-656-4673) operated by RAINN (Rape Abuse & Incest National Network) in partnership with more than 1,000 local sexual assault service providers across the country.
- National Women’s Law Center
- AAUW’s Know Your Rights: Workplace Sexual HarassmentAAUP One Faculty One Resistance
- AAUP Legal Defense Fund
- National Science Foundation encourages universities to report investigations of PI’s and senior personnel to them: Promising Practices
- NASPA Culture of Respect: Ending Campus Sexual Violence
- ADVANCEGeo Partnership: Empowering geoscientists to transform workplace climate
- APSA Sexual Harassment Resources
- Edge for Scholars: A Beginner’s Guide for Addressing Sexual Harassment in Academia
- Guide to Allyship
- Graduate Women in Science #SafeatWork Campaign
- National Immigration Law Center. Know Your Rights.
- RAINN Sexual Abuse of People with Disabilities
- Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
- The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
- Centers for Disease Control – Sexual Violence Prevention Strategies
- US Department of Justice – The Office on Violence Against Women; Protecting Students from Sexual Assault\\
The best prevention of harassment is to create a diverse, inclusive, and respectful environment that promotes gender equity and does not tolerate harassment of any kind (NAS 2018).
See ASA Working Group on Harassment’s STOPPING HARASSMENT IN YOUR DEPARTMENT: A Resource for Department Chairs.
Conventional sexual harassment training programs have not been shown to prevent harassment (EEOC 2017; NAS 2018; Tinkler 2018). Effective training programs focus on changing behavior rather than on changing beliefs, and communicate clear expectations for behavior and sanctions/consequences for failing to meet expectations.
- Bystander intervention training helps participants develop skills to interrupt and intervene when inappropriate behavior occurs.
- Implicit bias training helps us understand our own hidden schemata and biases.
- Self-defense/assertiveness training for students and faculty helps people respond in real time, negotiate conflict, and set professional boundaries.
- Diversity and inclusion training fosters inclusive, equitable, respectful, and productive workplaces that support people with different backgrounds.
- Civility training focuses on appropriate workplace behaviors and emphasizes respect of individual differences.
- Invite the university’s Title IX coordinator (and ombudsperson) to a faculty meeting so that faculty better understand the Title IX office’s responsibilities and constraints.
Campus Resources (That may exist)
- Campus Safety/Office of Public Safety
- Campus Violence Prevention Office
- Title IX Office/Coordinator
- Campus Counseling Center or Mental Health Services
- Employee Assistance Program (EAP)
- Equal Employment Opportunity Office (EEO)
- Human Resources Department
- Office of the Ombudsperson
- Office of the Dean of Students
- Peer Support Services
External Resources for Campus Leaders
- ADVANCEGeo Partnership provides bystander intervention training for academic leaders and faculty and collects online resources for the community on relevant research and tested strategies to respond to sexual harassment, bullying and discrimination in academia.
- No Means No: Anti-Harassment Training for the Workplace and Beyond, Smarts Consulting.
- Dealing with Unethical or Illegal Conduct in Higher Education, Stanford University.
- Beyond Diversity: Civility Training in the Workplace, Mark S. Nagy, Ph.D.
- Steps to Building a No-Tolerance Culture for Sexual Harassment, Earth & Space Science News.
- Center for Changing Campus Culture
- How Healthy Is Your Academic Department? Inside Higher Ed.
- Enhancing Department Climate: A Guide for Department Chairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- Dealing with Dysfunctional Academic Departments, Inside Higher Ed.
- Dealing with Dysfunction – A Book for University Leaders by Richard T. Castallo.
- Resources for a Respectful Workplace, University of Connecticut.
- Prevention Innovations Research Center, University of New Hampshire.
- National Resource Center: Creating Workplaces Free from Domestic Violence, Sexual Harassment & Violence, and Stalking https://www.workplacesrespond.org/
- University of Maine's Rising Tide Center https://umaine.edu/risingtide/resources-2/resources-dept-chairs-directors/.
- National Academies. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
- Smarts Consulting. 2016. Open Secrets and Missing Stairs: Sexual and Gender-Based Harassment at Scientific Meetings.
- Smarts Consulting. Make Meetings Safe and Welcoming for All.
- Sapiro, Virginia, and David Campbell. 2018. "Report on the 2017 APSA Survey on Sexual Harassment at Annual Meetings." PS: Political Science & Politics 51(1):197-206. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ps-political-science-and-politics/article/report-on-the-2017-apsa-survey-on-sexual-harassment-at-annual-meetings/87CDA986A04C136D4EC0758AC0B5988D
Other Reports about Harassment
- EEOC. 2017. Report of the Task force on the Study of Harassment at Work.
- AAUW. 2015. Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Misconduct.
- Campus PRISM. 2016. A Report on Promoting Restorative Initiatives for Sexual Misconduct on College Campuses.
- Freedom for Immigrants. 2017. Widespread Sexual Assault.
- White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. 2014. “Not alone: The first report of the White House task force to protect students from sexual assault.” https://www.justice.gov/ovw/page/file/905942/download
- #MeToo and the Future of Sexual Harassment Law https://www.yalelawjournal.org/collection/MeToo
- Anonymous Academic. 2017. “As a young academic, I was repeatedly sexually harassed at conferences.” December 1. The Guardian.
- Azvolinsky, Anna. 2017. “Dealing with Unethical or Illegal Conduct in Higher Education.” November 11. The Scientist.
- Bartlett, Tom and Nell Gluckman. 2018. “She Left Harvard. He Got to Stay.” February 27. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Blackstone, Amy. 2018. “Much work remains to end workplace harassment.” May 8. Bangor Daily News.
- Cortina, L. M., Koss, M. P., and Cook, S. L. 2018. “What’s the difference between sexual abuse, sexual assault, sexual harassment and rape.” February 7. The Conversation.
- Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 2016. “The urgency of intersectionality.” October. TEDWomen 2016.
- Dobbin, Frank and Alexandra Kalev. 2017. “Training Programs and Reporting Systems Won’t End Sexual Harassment. Promoting More Women Will.” November 15. Harvard Business Review.
- Farley, Lin. 2017. “I Coined the Term ‘Sexual Harassment.’ Corporations Stole It.” October 18. The New York Times.
- Flaherty, Colleen. 2017. “Zero-Tolerance Mindset: In harassment cases, could institutions be cracking down on even big-name faculty members?” August 11. Inside Higher Ed.
- Garland, James C. 2018. “What to Do When It’s Your Crisis.” January 26. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Giscombe, Katherine. 2018. “Sexual harassment and women of color.” February 13. Catalyst Blog.
- Gluckman, Nell. 2017. “What Happens When Sex Harassment Disrupts Victims’ Academic Careers.” December 6. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Gose, Ben. 2018. “How to Respond to Racist Incidents.” April 8. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Hager, Lisa. 2015. “Welcoming Trans Academics.” April 27. Inside Higher Ed.
- Johnson, W. Brad and David G. Smith. 2017. “Too Many Men are Silent Bystanders to Sexual Harassment.” March 13. Harvard Business Review.
- Jordan, Gabi. 2017. “Navigating Harassment as a Young Black Femme.” July 7. Inside Higher Ed.
- Kelsky, Karen. 2017. “Dealing with Sexual Harassment Intersectionally.” December 24. The Professor Is In.
- Kumar, Mohi. 2018. “Does Your Institution Foster a Culture of Sexual Harassment?” June 13. EOS.
- Lu, Wendy. 2017. “I’m Disabled and I Get Sexually Harassed – Here’s Why That Matters.” November 1. Teen Vogue.
- MacKinnon, Catherine A. “#MeToo Has Done What the Law Could Not.” February 4. The New York Times.
- Mangan, Katherine. 2018. “Why Male Mentors in the #MeToo Era Must ‘Engage More, Not Run for the Hills.’” June 6. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Marts, Sherry. 2017. “Is This Really Harassment?” August 2. Ask Dr. Smarts Blog.
- Maurer, Sara L. 2018. “The #MeToo Movement Isn’t About Women’s Frailty. It’s About Women’s Labor.” January 7. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Miller, Claire Cain. 2017. “Sexual Harassment Training Doesn’t Work. But Some Things Do.” December 11. The New York Times.
- O’Donnell, Peggy. 2017. “The Sexism that Permeates the Academy.” October 17. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Potter, Sharyn J. and Jane G. Stapleton. 2018. “The Importance of Cultural Change.” Business NH Magazine.
- Quilantan, Bianca. 2018. “’I was in danger’: What happens when students harass professors.” March 30. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Rockquemore, Kerry Ann. 2016. “Allies and Microaggressions.” April 13. Inside Higher Ed.
- Russell, Christine. 2017. “Confronting Sexual Harassment in Science.” October 27. Scientific American.
- Serio, Tricia. 2018. “How Colleges and Organizations Can Stop the Cycle of Faculty Sexual Abuse.” June 26. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Shultz, Jackson Wright. 2017. “Supporting LGBTQI Survivors, Part I and Part II.” August 4/September 1 Inside Higher Ed.
- Veletsianos, George and Jaigris Hodson. 2018. “Social Media as a Weapon to Harass Women Academics.” May 29. Inside Higher Ed.
- Walker, Francis. 2017. “On Anti-Transgender Microaggressions.” July 7. Inside Higher Ed.
- Wilson, Macy. 2017. “Addressing Racist Microaggressions.” January 6. Inside Higher Ed.
- Wilson, Robin. 2017. “Harassment Vigilance: At academic meetings, less boozing, more schmoozing and hiking.” February 26. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Wingfield, Adia Harvey. 2018. “When Black Men Are Harassed.” May 8. Slate.
- Zippel, Kathrin. 2018. “Sexual Harassment in Research Abroad.” Inside Higher Ed.
- Armstrong, Elizabeth A., Miriam Gleckman-Krut, and Lanora Johnson. 2018. “Silence, Power, and Inequality: An Intersectional Approach to Sexual Violence.” Annual Review of Sociology 44. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-073117-041410
- Biggs, Jacklyn, Patricia H. Hawley, and Monica Biernat. 2018. "The Academic Conference as a Chilly Climate for Women: Effects of Gender Representation on Experiences of Sexism, Coping Responses, and Career Intentions." Sex Roles 78(5):394-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-017-0800-9
- Cantalupo, Nancy Chi and Kidder, William, A. 2018. “Systematic Look at a Serial Problem: Sexual Harassment of Students by University Faculty,” Utah Law Review 671-786.
- Clancy, K. B. H., Lee, K. M. N., Rodgers, E. M., & Richey, C. 2017. “Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 122(7), 1610-1623.
- Davis, M.E., Vakalahi, H.F.O., Scales, R., 2015. “Women of color in the academy.” Pp. 265-277 in Disrupting the Culture of Silence: Confronting Gender Inequality and Making Change in Higher Education, edited by K. De Welde and A. Stepnick. Stylus Publishing, Sterling, Virginia.
- Dobbin, Frank and Erin L. Kelly. 2007. “How to Stop Harassment: Professional Construction of Legal Compliance in Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 112(4): 1203-1243.
- Grollman, Eric Anthony. 2014. “Multiple Disadvantaged Statuses and Health: The Role of Multiple Dimensions of Discrimination.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 55: 3-19.
- Grollman, Eric Anthony. 2018. “Black, Queer, and Beaten: On the Trauma of Graduate School.” Pp. 159-171 in Negotiating the Emotional Challenges of Conducting Deeply Personal Research in Health, edited by A. C. H. Nowakowski and J. E. Sumerau. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
- Gruber, James E. and Phoebe Morgan. 2005. In the Company of Men: Male Dominance and Sexual Harassment. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
- Hanson, Rebecca, and Patricia Richards. 2017. "Sexual Harassment and the Construction of Ethnographic Knowledge." Sociological Forum 32(3):587-609.
- Kmec, Julie A., C. Elizabeth Hirsh, and Sheryl Skaggs. 2016. “Workplace Regulation of Sexual Harassment and Federal and State-Level Legal Environments.” 29.
- McGuffey, C. Shawn. 2013. “Rape and Racial Appraisals: Culture, Intersectionality and Black Women’s Accounts of Sexual Assault.” Du Bois Review 10(1): 109-130.
- McLaughlin, Heather, Christopher Uggen, and Amy Blackstone. 2012. “Sexual Harassment, Workplace Authority, and the Paradox of Power.” American Sociological Review 77(4): 625-647.
- McLaughlin, Heather, Christopher Uggen, and Amy Blackstone. 2017. “The Economic and Career Effects of Sexual Harassment on Working Women.” Gender & Society 31(3): 333-358.
- Meyer, Doug. 2012. “An Intersectional Analysis of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People’s Evaluations of Anti-Queer Violence.” Gender & Society 26(6): 849-873.
- Nelson, Robin G., Julienne N. Rutherford, Katie Hinde, and Kathryn B. H. Clancy. 2017. "Signaling Safety: Characterizing Fieldwork Experiences and Their Implications for Career Trajectories." American Anthropologist 119(4):710-22.
- Pascoe, CJ and Jocelyn A. Hollander. 2016. “Good Guys Don’t Rape: Gender, Domination and Mobilizing Rape.” Gender & Society 30(1): 67-79.
- Pyke, Karen D. 2018. "Institutional Betrayal: Inequity, Discrimination, Bullying, and Retaliation in Academia." Sociological Perspectives 61(1):5-13.
- Saguy, Abigail C. (2003). What is Sexual Harassment?: From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne. University of California Press.
- Settles, Isis H., and Rachel C. O’Connor. 2014. "Incivility at Academic Conferences: Gender Differences and the Mediating Role of Climate." Sex Roles 71(1):71-82.
- Texeira, Mary Thierry. 2002. “’Who Protects and Serves Me?’ A Case Study of Sexual Harassment of African American Women in One U.S. Law Enforcement Agency.” Gender & Society 16(4): 524-545.
- Tinkler, Justine E. 2013. “How Do Sexual Harassment Policies Shape Gender Beliefs? An Exploration of The Moderating Effects Of Norm Adherence And Gender.” Social Science Research 42: 1269-1283.
- Tinkler, Justine, Skylar Gremillion, and Kira Arthurs. 2015. “Perceptions of Legitimacy: The Sex of the Legal Messenger and Reactions to Sexual Harassment Training.” Law & Social Inquiry.
- Uggen, Christopher and Amy Blackstone. 2004. “Sexual Harassment as a Gendered Expression of Power.” American Sociological Review 69(1):64-92.
- Welsh, Sandy, Jacquie Carr, Barbara MacQuarrie, and Audrey Huntley. 2006. “‘I’m not thinking of it as sexual harassment’: Understanding harassment across race and citizenship.” Gender & Society 20(1), 87–107.
- Williams, Christine L., Patti A. Giuffre, and Kirsten Dellinger. 1999. “Sexuality in the Workplace: Organizational Control, Sexual Harassment, and the Pursuit of Pleasure.” Annual Review of Sociology 25: 73-93.
- Zippel, Kathrin S. 2006. The Politics of Sexual Harassment: A Comparative Study of the United States, the European Union, and Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.