The Association shall be known as the American Sociological Association.
The objectives of the Association shall be to stimulate and improve research, instruction, and discussion, and to encourage cooperative relations among persons engaged in the scientific study of society.
ARTICLE III. Membership
Any persons interested in the objectives of said Association shall be eligible for membership. The forms and conditions of membership are set forth in the By-Laws, Article l.
Section 1. The officers of the Association directly elected by the voting membership shall be a President, a President-Elect, a Past President, a Vice-President, a Vice-President-Elect, a Past Vice-President, a Secretary, and the members of the Council. The President-Elect and the Vice-President-Elect shall serve for one year, and shall then automatically become President and Vice-President respectively for one-year terms. The Secretary shall be elected by the voting membership for a three-year term and is ineligible for re-election. The Secretary-Elect shall serve for one full year prior to the three-year term as Secretary, during which year the Secretary-Elect shall sit as a non-voting member of the Council.
Section 2. The Association shall constitute a Council from among its members. The Council shall be the governing body of the Association, except insofar as the Constitution and By-Laws delegate governmental functions to other officers or to committees.
Section 3. The Council shall consist of a maximum of nineteen voting members: up to seven ex officio, and precisely twelve elected-at-large. The ex officio members shall be the President, Past President, President-Elect, Vice-President, Past Vice-President, Vice-President Elect and Secretary. The members-at-large shall be elected for staggered three-year terms, with four elected each year. No member-at-large shall be eligible for re-election to the Council as a member-at-large until one year after the expiration of the prior term, and no individual shall be eligible for re-election as a member-at-large of the Council after having served two such terms.
Section 4. As the governing body of the Association, the Council shall be responsible for the formulation of policy and the general direction of the affairs of the Association. It shall have the power to fill vacancies in its elective membership occasioned by death, resignation, or failure to elect, such as appointees to hold office until replaced by officers elected at the next annual election. In the event of an anticipated absence of six or more months of a member of Council, the Council may appoint a temporary replacement to serve with all rights and responsibilities of regular membership for the term of the anticipated absence. The authority to interpret the Constitution and By-Laws resides in the Council. When the Council is not in session, the Secretary may make such provisional rulings as are necessary for the operation of the Association, subject to review by the Council at its next meeting. The Council shall appoint and may remove by majority vote the Executive Officer and Editors of the various publications sponsored by the Association.
Section 5. A majority of the members shall constitute a quorum of the Council. When the Council is not in session, questions may be submitted to all members of the Council for their votes.
Section 6. The other officers of the Association shall be elected by the Council, and shall be an Executive Officer and Editors of publications sponsored by the Association. The Executive Officer and the Editors shall be elected by the Council for terms to be fixed by the Council.
ARTICLE V. Official Publications
Section l. The Association shall maintain a journal entitled the American Sociological Review.
Section 2. The Association shall issue such other regular or occasional publications, as it deems necessary in the promotion of its objectives.
ARTICLE VI. Committees
Section l. The Council may establish such committees as may be necessary for the conduct of the Association's affairs.
ARTICLE VII. Meetings
Section l. The President shall call at least one convention each year, at a time and place to be determined by the Council. At each annual convention there shall be at least one Business Meeting at which the Officers and the Council shall report to the Association and respond to questions from the membership.
Section 2. At the Business Meeting, a majority of the voting members present may: (a) place items on the agenda of that Business Meeting, and (b) pass courtesy resolutions. If at least one hundred voting members are present, a majority can place items on the agenda of the Council.
Section 3. If Council disapproves a resolution passed by the Business Meeting for which at least 3% of the voting members of the Association voted affirmatively, this resolution and such alternatives as Council may propose will be submitted to the voting membership. If endorsed by a majority of those voting on that ballot, the resolution or alternative will be considered to be an action of the Association.
ARTICLE VIII. Special Funds and Endowments
Section l. The Association may solicit and receive special funds and endowments. Acceptance and expenditure of such funds shall be authorized by the Council.
ARTICLE IX. Amendments
Section l. The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds affirmative vote of those voting in a referendum submitted to the voting members of the Association.
Section 2. Amendments may be proposed by the Council or by petition of at least 3% of the voting members of the Association.
Section 3. All proposed amendments to the Constitution shall be communicated to the voting membership at least fifty days prior to the vote on the amendment.
ARTICLE I. Membership and Dues
Section 1. Persons subscribing to the objectives of the Association may become Members. Those subscribing to the objectives of the Association but desiring fewer membership services may become Associate Members, pursuant to criteria established by the Council. Persons are eligible for Retired membership when they are retired from their primary place of employment and are no longer receiving payment for sociological work on a salaried basis. Students enrolled in undergraduate or graduate institutions may become Student Members. High school teachers may become High School Teacher Members.
The dues for Members, Associate Members, Retired Members, Student Members, and High School Teacher Members shall be determined by Council. Increases in dues above cost of living adjustments shall be subject to approval by all voting Members.
Section 2. Members, Retired Members, Student Members, High School Teacher Members, and Associates shall have the right to attend all meetings of the Association and shall be entitled to one subscription to the Association's newsletter plus a free choice of as many other ASA publications as Council may authorize. Members, Retired Members, Student Members, High School Teacher Members, and Associates shall have the right to initiate new business for the Association, by submitting a proposal in writing to the Executive Officer. The Executive Officer shall refer the proposal to an appropriate committee of the American Sociological Association and the committee shall submit the proposal with its recommendation for action to the Council. Only Members, Retired Members, and Student Members of the Association shall have the right to vote and to hold elected office in the Association.
Section 3. Persons previously designated as Life Members shall continue as such.
Section 4. All Members of the Association shall comply with the provisions of the ASA Code of Ethics, as adopted and revised from time to time by the membership of the Association. Membership in the Association may be suspended or terminated, and the privileges of membership may be suspended wholly or in part, for failure to adhere to the Code of Ethics in accordance with Policies and Procedures to be adopted by the Council pursuant to Article V, section 6 of these By-Laws.
Section 5. Upon the failure to pay annual dues, membership and the privileges of membership in the Association, including subscriptions to the Association's publications and the right to vote, shall be terminated on January 1 of the year following the last year for which a full payment of dues has been made.
Section 6. An application for membership received prior to October 1 in any year shall be dated back to January 1 of that year, and publications to which the person is entitled shall be sent to the member. An application for membership received on or after October 1 shall generally be dated forward to January 1 of the next year.
Section 7. Dues of Members from other countries who are residing abroad may be reduced at the discretion of the Council.
ARTICLE II. Elections And Voting
Section 1. The President-Elect, Vice-President-Elect, Secretary-Elect, members of the Council, and Committees who are elected by the membership-at-large (Committee on Committees, Committee on Nominations, and Committee on Publications) shall be elected by the members qualified to vote. The term of office shall begin on the date announced for the close of the Annual Meeting of the Association in the year during which they are elected, except that the term of office for members of the Committee on Committees and Committee on Nominations shall begin on the date announced for the beginning of the Annual Meeting of the Association in the year during which they are elected.
(a) The Committee on Nominations shall select two names each for the offices of President-Elect, Vice-President-Elect, and Secretary-Elect, and for each vacancy on the Council, the Committee on Committees, and the Committee on Publications.
(b) Prior to the time of the meeting of the Committee on Nominations, Members and Student Members shall be invited to suggest names for nominations for all elective offices; the Committee shall be guided but not bound by the suggestions received.
(c) Prior to the submission of the official ballot for the election, the nominees of the Committee on Nominations shall be made known to the membership. Within thirty days of that notice, Members and Student Members may propose additions to the ballot. A Member or Student Member who is supported by 50 Members or Student Members for nomination to Council, the Committee on Nominations, or the Committee on Publications; or by at least l00 Members or Student Members for nomination as President-Elect, Vice President-Elect, or Secretary-Elect will be placed on the official ballot along with the nominees of the Committee on Nominations.
(d) Nominations for the members of the Committee on Nominations shall be made by the twelve at-large members of the Council plus the Vice President-Elect, serving as chair without a vote. The twelve at-large members of Council shall select twice as many names as there are vacancies to be filled.
Section 3. The general election ballots shall be sent to the members eligible to vote no later than May 15 of each year. To be valid as votes ballots must be returned to the Executive Office or its agent by the date specified on the ballot, which shall be no less than thirty days from the date ballots were submitted to members. Procedures for the counting of ballots shall insure the anonymity of individual voters.
Section 4. For the positions of President-Elect, Vice-President-Elect, and Secretary-Elect, a majority of those members voting is required before a candidate is declared elected. If none of the candidates receives a majority of those members voting, the election shall be decided in accordance with procedures adopted by Council. For other elected positions, including Council, the Committee on Nominations, and the Committee on Publications, the candidate (or candidates when two or more vacancies are to be filled) receiving the largest number of votes shall be declared elected. In case of a tie vote, the President of the Association, in the presence of witnesses chosen by the candidates concerned, shall decide by lot between them. For all positions other than President, President-Elect, Past-President and Past Vice-President, if the elected person dies, resigns, or becomes unable to complete the full term for which that person was elected, the candidate who received the next highest number of votes shall be declared elected for the remainder of the term, unless otherwise specified herein.
Section 5. The Executive Officer shall be responsible for the conduct of elections and for the tabulation of ballots. The Executive Officer shall report the results of tabulations to the Secretary and to the appropriate Committees. The Executive Officer may arrange for outside review of election and counting procedures.
Section 6. The Executive Office shall hold the ballots and other materials in safe custody for a period of at least eighteen months.
Section 7. The Council shall have the authority to determine the procedures to be followed in conducting elections and other ballot measures under these Bylaws and the Association’s Constitution, provided that such procedures shall protect the privacy of members who vote and ensure an accurate and fair count.
Section 8. Voting members of the Association may take any action otherwise within the powers of the Council. Such an action by voting members requires the completion in sequence of the following steps:
(a) A written statement of the proposed action, hereinafter called the Members' Resolution, is signed by three percent of the voting members of the Association. The introductions of all petitions circulated for the purpose of validating a Members' Resolution shall contain the following statement: "For signatures to be valid, the signee must be a voting member of the American Sociological Association as of December 3l of the year of the signing. The signee's name must be written as it appears on the membership rolls of the Association, and signers must provide their addresses as they appear on the membership rolls of the Association. The date of signing shall be indicated."
(b) The Members' Resolution and the accompanying petition signature are sent to the Executive Office of the Association, postmarked no later than December 31 of the year during which the signatures were affixed. All signatures for a given Members' Resolution must be affixed within a calendar year. Each page of the Members' Resolution and accompanying signatures must include the following statement: "This resolution (or these signatures) is submitted by ____, a voting member of the American Sociological Association."
(c) The Members' Resolution is received by the Secretary who shall verify the validity of the signatures and the requirement that the petition has been signed by three percent of the voting members of the Association. Following this verification, the Secretary shall distribute the Members' Resolution to the Council.
(d) The Members' Resolution is included on the agenda and discussed by the Council at its next scheduled meeting.
(e) If the Council disapproves the Members' Resolution, the Members' Resolution and any resolution of the Council alternative to it are published in an appropriate Association publication or by other means as deemed appropriate by the Council.
(f) A ballot containing the Members' Resolution and any alternative resolution of the Council is sent to the voting members of the Association; such a referendum will accompany the annual election ballot except under unusual circumstances as determined by the Council.
(g) The Council shall consider the urgency of any Members’ Resolution brought by the voting members, and shall employ special procedures without regard to the schedule of publications where it deems this justifiable.
ARTICLE III. Officers
Section 1. The President of the Association shall preside at all meetings of the Association. The President shall also chair the Council and shall perform such duties as may be assigned to the President by the Council. The President shall have the authority to fill any vacancies that may occur on committees for the remainder of unexpired terms except as otherwise provided. In the event of the death, resignation, absence or inability to serve of the President, the duties of the President shall devolve successively upon the Vice-President, the President-Elect, and the Vice-President-Elect. The officer concerned shall become President if that officer is to serve a full term and shall become Acting President if only a partial term to be served. In the event of the death, resignation, or absence of the President-Elect, the office and duties of the President-Elect shall devolve on the Vice-President-Elect.
Section 2. The Vice-President shall chair meetings of the Association and the Council in the absence of the President. In the event of the death, resignation, or inability to serve of the Vice-President, or in the event that the Vice-President succeeds to the office of President or is elected to the office of President-Elect, the duties of the Vice-President shall devolve upon the Vice-President-Elect who shall serve the remainder of that term as Acting Vice-President, and shall then serve as Vice-President for the term for which the Vice-President-Elect was originally elected.
If the Vice-President-Elect succeeds to the office of Acting Vice-President, the Council position of the Vice-President-Elect shall remain vacant until the next election.
Section 3. The Secretary shall be an advisory and recording officer of the Association and shall provide liaison between the Executive Office on the one hand and the President and Council on the other at the request of either. The Secretary shall serve ex officio with vote as chair of the Committee on the Executive Office and Budget and as a member of the Publications and Program Committees. The Secretary shall record and report the transactions of the Association and the Council, shall work closely with various committees as herein specified, and shall perform such other duties as the Council may assign. Each year the Secretary shall provide the Association with a written report recording the Secretary's views on the organization and activities of the Association.
In the event of the death, resignation, or inability to serve of the Secretary, the office and duties of the Secretary shall devolve upon the Secretary-Elect, if there is a Secretary-Elect at that time. Otherwise, the Council shall elect a member of the Association to serve as Acting Secretary and to fulfill the duties of the Secretary until the next election, at which time a Secretary shall be elected in the prescribed way but without serving one year as Secretary-Elect.
Section 4. The Executive Officer shall be the chief administrative officer of the Association and shall transact its business. The Executive Officer shall have charge of the central office of the Association and shall have jurisdiction over and attend to the business details of the Association's publications. The Executive Officer shall, in consultation with the President, prepare tentative agenda for meetings of the Council, and, in consultation with the chair, tentative agenda for meetings of Publications Committee. These agenda shall be distributed to the appropriate members at least ten days prior to their meetings. Final agenda shall be approved by the Council and the Publications Committee for their respective meetings. In accordance with the Council's policies, the Executive Officer shall formulate plans for the accomplishment of the Association's objectives, and upon the approval of the Council, the Executive Officer shall be responsible for coordinating the public relations activities of the Association. All committees may look to him/her for assistance in their work; such assistance may include the Executive Officer presiding or arranging for another Member to preside temporarily at a committee meeting during the election of a chair from among the voting members. The Executive Officer shall receive and have custody of the funds of the Association, discharge its obligations, and maintain its accounts. The Executive Officer shall be responsible to the Council through the Committee on the Executive Office and Budget and its chair, the Secretary. The Executive Officer shall make an annual report to the Council and shall be a non-voting member of the Council and such committees as may be designated by the Council. The Executive Officer shall consult with the President and Secretary as questions of policy arise and shall hold no other office in the Association while serving as Executive Officer.
(a) The Council shall meet twice annually, at least once in conjunction with the annual convention of the Association and at least once between annual conventions. Special meetings of the Council may be called by the President or by a majority of the members of the Council.
(b) Meetings of the Council shall be conducted according to Robert's Rules of Order, the enforcement of which may be requested by any member of the Council.
(c) The Council shall appoint the Executive Officer, and the Editors of all publications of the Association. To make an appointment, a slate of candidates shall first be prepared and endorsed, in the case of the Executive Officer, by the Committee on the Executive Office and Budget, and with the case of an Editor, by the Committee on Publications. The slate of candidates shall be subject to approval by the Council, as shall their order of preference. The Council shall then instruct the Secretary to proceed with the necessary negotiations.
(d) The Council may make decisions to cooperate or affiliate with other societies and associations. When appropriate it shall elect representatives from this Association to such other societies or associations. It may also recognize other societies or associations as cooperating or affiliated organizations for purposes of planning programs or other activities.
(e) All actions taken by the Council must be communicated to the membership promptly in an appropriate publication of the Association, or by other means as deemed necessary by the Council.
(f) The Council may create such temporary committees not provided in the Constitution and By-Laws as may seem useful for promoting the work of the Association.
(g) The Council shall make a timely designation of a portion of program time at each Annual Meeting for sessions to be organized by Sections of the Association and shall allocate to each Section an appropriate part of that program time.
Section 6. Any action required or permitted to be taken at a meeting of the Council may be taken when the Council is not in session, provided all members of the Council consent in writing by signing their name and set forth in the same writing the action or decision taken or made. Consent in writing shall have the same force and effect as a unanimous vote, and may be described as such in any document executed by or on behalf of the corporation. Requests for actions by members of the Council may be submitted to members by mail, electronic mail, fax, or by other means.
Section 7. Teleconferencing. One or more members of the Council may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment through which all members participating in the meeting can speak to and hear each other at the same time. Participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
ARTICLE IV. Publications
Section 1. All the publications of the Association shall be under the general direction of the Committee on Publications, subject to the approval of the Council.
Section 2. Each regular ASA publication shall have an editor elected by the Council. The Committee on Publications shall submit a list to Council of nominees for each Editorship, to which list the Council may add or delete names.
Section 3. The Editorial Board of each regular ASA publication shall be composed of the Editor of that publication as chair and a set of Associate Editors. The number and composition of each Editorial Board shall be determined by the Council. Associate Editors shall be appointed by the Committee on Publications for three-year terms on the recommendation of the Editor. Approximately one-third of the terms of Associate Editors for each publication shall expire each year.
Section 4. The Editor of each of the official publications of the Association shall be responsible for the editorial management of the publication. The Editor shall have the authority to appoint such special issue editors as the Editor may deem necessary. Each Editor must work within the policies established by the Committee on Publications and within the budget set by the Council.
Section 5. The Editor of each publication shall have the right to reject for publication any paper or other communication that is submitted.
Section 6. Publication of official news and notes, and matters pertaining to the business affairs of the Association shall be published in an appropriate publication of the Association.
ARTICLE V. Committees
Section 1. Committee on Publications
(a) There shall be a Committee on Publications, consisting of the Immediate Past President, the Secretary, and nine members elected by the voting membership of the Association, three each year for staggered three-year terms. The Committee shall choose a chair from among the elected members who have served at least one year on the Committee.
(b) The Committee on Publications shall be responsible for all proposals for the establishment of a new publication or for major modifications in an existing publication of the Association, subject to the approval of the Council.
Section 2. Committee on Nominations
The Committee on Nominations shall consist of eleven members, elected by the voting membership of the Association for staggered two-year terms, plus the Vice President, ex officio without a vote, who shall act as chair.
Section 3. Program Committee
Each Program Committee shall be selected by the President-Elect two years before the Annual Meeting for which the Committee is responsible and will be reviewed by the Council. The Council shall have the right to suggest modification or to augment the Committee if it deems appropriate. The Program Committee shall consist of nine to eleven persons: The President-Elect, serving as Chair, the Vice-President-Elect, the Secretary, and six to eight other members of the Association selected as follows: Each year, the Council will appoint four to six members from a list presented by the President-Elect. Two of these members shall be appointed for two-year terms and others for one-year terms. The Program Committee shall consider requests from temporary and informal groups of Association members for opportunities to meet and discuss topics of special interest to them. Three sessions at each Annual Meeting, including the session devoted to the Presidential Address, may at the option of the President-Elect, be under the exclusive control of the President-Elect.
Section 4. Committee on the Executive Office and Budget
(a) The Council shall select a committee on the Executive Office and Budget consisting of seven members: The Secretary, The President-Elect, the President, the Past-President, and three members appointed by the Council on the recommendation of the Secretary for staggered three-year terms. The Secretary shall be chair.
(b) The Committee shall have responsibility for the Executive Office, subject to the policies and directives of the Council, and shall report regularly to the Council. The Committee in cooperation with the President, the Executive Officer, and the chair of the Committee on Publications, shall annually propose to the Council a budget for the ensuing year. At the end of the first half of each fiscal year it shall review the receipts and expenditures to date and if necessary make recommendations for adjustments in the budget. It shall, subject to Council policies, have the responsibility and authority for the investment and reinvestment of funds owned and held by the Association.
Section 5. Committee on Sections
(a) The Committee on Sections, consistent with Article VI of these By-Laws, shall have the responsibility to guide the Association on the administration of sections to include the creation and continuation of sections. The Committee on Sections shall advise ASA Council on section policies and procedures. In addition, the Committee will serve as liaison between sections and ASA Council.
(b) The Committee on Sections shall consist of nine members. Six members shall be appointed by Council for three-year terms based on the recommendation of the President. Three of these members shall be appointed from among the Association membership and three shall be appointed from among the Council members-at-large. Three members shall also be elected for three-year terms by current section chairs from among current section chairs according to section membership size. All terms will be staggered.
Section 6. Committee on Professional Ethics
(a) The Committee on Professional Ethics ("COPE") shall have responsibility for promoting ethical conduct by sociologists at the highest professional level through development and sponsorship of educational activities for ASA members and other sociologists, investigation of complaints concerning the ethical conduct of members of the ASA, and imposition of sanctions when a violation of the ASA Code of Ethics has occurred. COPE shall also have responsibility for recommending to the Council proposed changes in the Code of Ethics to be submitted to the membership for approval from time to time.
(b) COPE shall carry out its responsibilities in accordance with Policies and Procedures to be adopted by the Council which may provide for discipline of members and former members of ASA, including termination or suspension from membership and suspension of certain privileges of membership, in the case of violations of the ASA Code of Ethics.
(c) COPE shall consist of nine (9) members who shall serve staggered terms of three (3) years each. The members of COPE shall be appointed by the Council on the recommendation of the Committee on Committees. No member shall serve more than two (2) successive terms.
Section 7. Committee on Awards
(a) The Committee on Awards shall have oversight of all ASA awards. The Committee on Awards shall have the responsibility to guide the Association on policies and procedures for all awards. Also, the Committee shall propose or consider proposals to establish new awards.
(b) The Committee shall consist of six members appointed by Council for three-year terms based on the recommendation of the Committee on Committees. Three members shall be appointed from among the Association membership and three members shall be appointed from among the Council members-at-large.
Section 8. Committee on Committees
(a) The Committee on Committees shall be responsible for making ranked recommendations to Council for appointments to all Award Selection Committees. Additionally, the Committee on Committees shall make ranked recommendations to Council for appointments to the Awards Committee, the Committee on Professional Ethics, and the at-large portion of the Committee on Sections. The Committee on Nominations will have the responsibility of nominating the candidates for the Committee on Committees.
(b) The Committee on Committees shall be composed of eight members each serving two-year terms. Four are to be elected at-large and four in seats reserved for specific institutional constituencies (one seat each for members employed by PhD-granting institutions; by MA and 4-year institutions; by 2-year schools; and by non-teaching institutions and in self-employment) with two at-large and two reserved seats up for election each year.
Section 9. Each committee shall work within the budget as approved by the Council, under the policies established by the Council, and shall make an annual report to the Council.
Section 10. Reports of committees shall be published and distributed to the membership annually.
Section 11. In the event of the anticipated or actual absence of one or more members of a committee at scheduled committee meetings, the President and the Secretary are empowered to appoint temporary members using the criteria for selection ordinarily employed in appointing members for the committee in question. The President and the Secretary are also empowered to designate temporary chairs for all committees in the event of anticipated or actual absence of the regularly appointed chair. Temporary members or chairs of any committee shall have all the powers respectively of regular members or chairs for the period of their temporary appointment.
ARTICLE VI. Sections
Section 1. Members who share interests in a sociological specialty may seek to become a section. Council has the authority to form sections in accordance with standards it adopts from time to time and as set forth in the ASA Manual on Sections. A Section shall remain in operation as long as it operates according to the policies and procedures set forth in the ASA Manual on Sections and it is determined to be in good standing as periodically reviewed by the Council.
Section 2. Sections shall adopt Bylaws subject to approval by the Council. These Bylaws shall include provision for a committee of the Section for the purpose of cooperating with the Program Committee in planning the presentation of its field of interest in the Annual Meeting of the Association.
Section 3. A Section shall be entitled to cooperation from the Executive Office in matters of communication to its members, and from the Program Committee in matters related to the Annual Meeting, and from the Association in such other ways as the Council may decide.
ARTICLE VII. Executive Office and Budget
Section 1. At the beginning of each fiscal year, a budget covering all anticipated expenditures and income of the Association for that fiscal year shall be submitted by the Committee on the Executive Office and Budget to the Council for approval. The Committee on the Executive Office and Budget shall review the budget at the end of the second quarter and shall submit proposed changes to the Council for approval.
Section 2. This budget shall be binding on the Executive Officer.
Section 3. At the end of each fiscal year, the accounts of the Association shall be reviewed by the Committee on the Executive Office and Budget and shall be audited at the conclusion of each fiscal year by a certified public accountant approved by the Council. The report of this audit shall be made available in an appropriate Association publication or by other means as deemed necessary by the Council.
ARTICLE VIII. Amendments
Section 1. The By-Laws may be amended by a majority affirmative vote of those voting in a referendum submitted to the voting members of the Association.
Section 2. Amendments may be proposed by majority vote of the Council or by petition of at least three percent of the voting members of the Association.
Chronology of Changes
1933 1st major revision
1942 2nd major revision
1951 3rd major revision
1967 4th major revision
1980 5th major revision
1997 6th major revision
1998 7th major revision
1999 8th major revision
2001 9th major revision
2003 10th major revision
As amended in referenda of: